Agawu, Kofi. 1992. "Representing African Music." Critical Inquiry 18/2:245-266.
Agawu, Kofi. 1995.
African Rhythm: A Northern Ewe Perspective. xx, 217
pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
From front page (before title page): "It is often said that the distinctive quality of African music lies in its rhythmic structure. Scholarly work on this music has accordingly stressed drumming as the site at which 'complex' rhythms are cultivated. In this book, Kofi Agawu argues that drumming is only one among several modes of rhythmic expression and that a more fruitful approach to the understanding of African music is through spoken language, in particular its tonal and rhythmic contours, and its metalinguistic function. Drawing on his research among the Northern Ewe people of Ghana, Professor Agawu constructs a soundscape of Northern Eweland which demonstrates the pervasiveness of a variety of forms of rhythmic expression in the daily lives of the people. He then devotes a chapter each to an analysis of rhythm in language, song, drumming and dancing, musical performance, and folktale narration. A concluding chapter addresses some of the ideological factors that have influence the representation of African rhythm. An accompanying compact disk enables the reader to work closely with the sound of African speech and song discussed in the book.".
African/rhythm/Ewe (African people)--Music--History and criticism/Folk music--Ghana--Volta Region/Folk songs, Ewe--Ghana--Volta Region/Musical meter and rhythm/ethnomusicology/cognition.
Agawu, Kofi. 1995.
"The Invention of 'African Rhythm'." Journal of the American Musicological Society 48/3:380-395.
Demonstrates the pervasive stereotype that the music of Africa, and by extent ion Africans, are endowed with better rhythmic acuity than Western music/musicians. This is not an outdated notion or one that is uniquely Western, but instead persists into the modern literature from scholars from many nations. However, some scholars are beginning to see this idea as an extension of exoticism and an overgeneralization of the features of African music. How, then, was African rhythm "invented?" Agawu gives three cases. 1) "The Lexical Gap": The way in which indigenous peoples describe their music has been overlooked/mis-interpreted. 2) "The Politics of Notation" : The use of alternate notational systems (e.g. TUBS) creates a different-ness. 3) "African Rhythm as Invented by Africans": When indigenous informants are asked for information, this information is not enough to create complete theories.
This essay did not include many things that would be considered "Cognitive" in nature. Instead, it seemed to be a discussion of how the politics of a discipline effects its practice. However, the author does not seem to pose any evidence that the stereotype is a mischaracterization of African music in general. Instead, he seems to argue that this generality is wrong because Africa is big, not because of any evidence that there are substantive differences in the music. Thus he has not presented evidence that the rhythm is a scholarly invention, only that it 's interpretation is filtered by several factors. On a side note, he also confuses "etic/emic" with "Insider/Outsider".
Agawu, V. Kofi. 1986. "'Gi Dunu,' 'Nyekpadudo,' and the Study of West African Rhythm." Ethnomusicology 30/1:64-83.
Alen, Olavo. 1995. "Rhythm as Duration of Sounds in Tumba Francesa." Ethnomusicology 39/1:55-71.
Arom, Simha. 1991. African Polyphony and Polyrhythm: Musical Structure and Methodology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Arom, Simha, and Susanne Fürniss. 1992. "The Pentatonic System of the Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic," in European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Developments and Recent Trends, editors Max Peter Baumann, Artur Simon, and Ulrich Wegner, 159-173. Intercultural Music Studies, series editor. Max Peter Baumann, 4. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
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Avorgbedor, Daniel. 1987. "The Construction and Manipulation of Temporal Structures in Yeve Cult Music: A Multi-Dimensional Approach." African Music 6/4:4-18.
As an antidote to so-called objective, quantitative approaches to musical time, this article explores some qualitative and multi-dimensional aspects of musical time by examining the rituals of the Yeve cult as practiced among the Anlo-Ewe of Ghana.
Three broad categories of people can be defined in relation to the cult: full members are called Husi, initiates (apprentices) are called Husiwo, and non-members (the public at large) are called Ahevi. Two broad categories of songs are defined: those with the vocal component in free rhythm but with strictly rhythmic instrumental accompaniment, and those with all components in strict rhythm. Yeve music is unique in many respects, while still bearing resemblance to Ewe music in general. In addition to a broad description of the spatial and temporal organization of the various dances of the long ritual (lasting one or more entire days), two particular dances are highlighted for closer analysis, namely the Avlevu and the Adavu.
The ritual begins very early in the morning, before the general public arises, which contributes a timeless, "out of nowhere" feeling to the music, and which reinforces the cult’s secrecy. The relentless rhythmic accompaniments drives participants’ vocal activity and guards against lethargy during the long ritual. In addition to the strict rhythmic accompaniment, whose component and composite rhythms Avorgbedor transcribes, the Husi generally also provide another layer of sound with instruments called adodo, a continuously shaken multiple bell instrument that phases into and out of a regular, pulsating rhythm. The overall effect is of a saturated aural space, or "sound-time maze", which helps to imbue the event with awe and suspense.
In contrast to the tense, rigid atmosphere of the ritual as a whole, the Avlevu component serves to relieve pent-up audience tension both through comedy and through simulation of the erotic act. The dance and the music cooperate closely in a a gradual acceleration that climaxes in a chaotic frenzy. The Adavu performs a very different function, namely to symbolize and facilitate a heightened spiritual state among the participants. Through circular running and dancing, and through circular, monorhythmic beat patterns that fluctuate between triple and quadruple groupings, the Adavu conveys the sense of timelessness associated with religious experience. To demonstrate how costumes play a role in Yeve ritual, Avorgbedor also briefly describes the avlaya, a huge, multilayered skirt worn by certain male participants. The various layers, each with a different appearance, can be quickly interchanged away from audience eyes, giving the impression that the dancer has many separate skirts that are being magically changed in a very short time.
In additional to the ritual functions of the music, dance, and costumes involved, these elements are manipulated to elicit desired participant and audience responses, which indicates that the Yeve cult ritual serves aesthetic and entertainment purposes as well.
Avorgbedor, Daniel. 1996.
"African Rhythm: A Northern Ewe Perspective (review)." Yearbook for Traditional Music 28:200-202.
Baghemil, Bruce. 1988. "The Morphology and Phonology of Katajjait (Inuit Throat Games)." Canadian Journal of Linguistics / Revue canadienne de Linguistique 33/1:1-58.
The author took the corpus of katajjait transcriptions presented in the items below and analyzed them from a linguistic perspective, retranscribing them into linguistic notation in the process.
1) Beaudry, Nicole. 1978. "Toward Transcription and Analysis of Inuit Throat Games: Macrostructure." Ethnomusicology 22:261-273.
2) Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1983. "Some Aspects of Inuit Vocal Games." Ethnomusicology 27:457-475.
Linguistic theory provides a much better explanatory apparatus for katajjait than does music theory. Indeed, katajjait should be regarded primarily as a linguistic rather than a musical phenomenon. The katajjait exhibit phonological and morphological characteristics that are well-attested in other languages of the world.
In terms of phonology (the study of speech sounds and production methods), various parameters of kataijjat are explored: voicing, pulmonic, tonal, and segmental, and timing (rhythm). The voicing parameter can be positive or negative: [+/–voice] indicates whether or not the vocal folds are involved in making the sound. The pulmonic parameter refers to airstream mechanism: [+/–expiration], also "pulmonic egressive" or "pulmonic ingressive", indicates direction of airflow. The tonal parameter refers to the relative pitch levels that play a role in determining meaning in tonal languages. In the corpus examined, three tonal levels occurred (low, mid, high). The segmental parameter refers to the vocables (nonsense syllables) used. Timing patterns in linguistic notation are indicated by the number of spatial "slots" allotted to each phoneme. The author renders the quasi-musical notation in Beaudry (1978) and Nattiez (1983) into "skeletal tier" linguistic notation which concisely encodes the voicing, pulmonic, tonal, segmental, and timing parameters described above. These new representations facilitate comparison of katajjait with other linguistic systems, and allow the deduction of certain rules or generalizations about katajjait; for example, [+voice] and [–expiration] do not occur together. On a phonological level, the kataijjat seem to represent an independent linguistics system because they include features not found in regular Inuit language.
Certain features of katajjait which cannot be explained on phonological grounds can be explained on morphological grounds. (Morphology is the study of the structure, classification, and relationships of morphemes, which are the smallest meaningful units or forms in a language. In the case of katajjait, morphemes are the discrete, irreducible configurations of phonological parameters that have been called "motifs" by previous researchers.) The katajjait are a manifestation of "empty morphology", a situation in which the morphemes and their arrangement, even though governed by rules, are semantically empty, or devoid of meaning. Empty morphology is characteristic of certain other alternative speech forms found in the world, especially "ludlings" or game languages. It is clear that the katajjait comprise just such a game language.
C. Value for cognitive ethnomusicology
This article provides an excellent model for how linguistic tools can be applied to genres in which the boundaries between speech and music are fluid or are not yet completely understood. It is interesting to note that the combination of [+voice] and [–expiration], which does not occur in katajjait, does occur in Russian laments—the "voiced inhalation" as Margarita Mazo terms it.
The article suggests many arenas of further research within the cognitive and ethnomusicological domains:
-the cognitive aspects of a fundamental feature of the genre, namely the phenomenal coordination required between the two katajjait participants
-the transmission of katajjait from one generation to the next as a linguistic skill
-if acquisition of kataijjat skill follows any typical patterns of language acquisition
-if an individual’s linguistic skill would be an indicator of skill in katajjait
Baily, John. 1977. "Movement Patterns in Playing the Herati Dutar," In The Anthropology of the Body, editor John Blacking, 275-330. Association of Social Anthropologists Monograph, 15. London: Academic Press.
Baily examines the performance techniques for three types of dutar played in and around Herat, Afghanistan, and compares them in the context of the anatomical, physiological, and psychological organization of the human motor system. His central thesis is that the interaction between the human body and the morphology of the instrument may shape the structure of the music, channelling human creativity in predictable directions. Baily first describes the changes in morphology of the dutar, which began in about 1950, from the 2- to 3- to 14-stringed versions. Given that the invention of the 14-stringed version was strongly influenced by the rebab, he frequently comments on that instrument also. Next Baily looks at the interaction between the human body and the dutar-s; right-hand patterns are considered, but since melodies are realized on a single string on all dutar-s, left hand patterns are stressed. For the left hand, visual, tactile, and aural feedback all play a role in competent performance, though to varying degrees on different dutar-s. The linear array of the dutar fretboard (as opposed to the tiered array of the rebab fretboard) poses a greater challenge to spatio-motor coordination. Traditional melodies specifically associated with the earlier dutar-s tend toward meandering downward motion, which helps reduce spatial confusion. The 14-stringed dutar, however, was specifically invented to play some of the "classical" rebab repertoire with very different types of melodies—but since these melodies are still realized on a linear array (on only one of the 14 strings), this lends to greater spatial confusion, and hence makes the 14-stringed dutar a more difficult instrument to play (for the left hand). Traditional Herati music is highly compatible with the spatial layout of the dutar, whereas the rebab is ideally suited to Afghan classical music. "This shows how closely these two kinds of music are adapted to the instruments on which they are habitually played and suggests that in both instances the instrument has to some degree shaped the music."
Baily uses the above observations to make some conclusions with wider implications. First, certain motor structures underlie musical styles on a given instrument, and these motor structures can become a generative grammar for further composition and improvisation. Second, assuming that the physiology and psychology underlying the ability to play an instrument are universal to humans, it should be theoretically possible to devise absolute measures of skill that have cross-cultural validity.
This article provides an excellent model for describing and comparing instrumental playing techniques in the context of human motor control. More important insights were gained from comparing dutar-s as a whole with the rebab than from comparing the three types of dutar with each other, and perhaps the title should have taken account of this. Since in this study Baily mainly considers competent players and less the process of skill acquisition, the emphasis falls on motor control rather than motor learning. His concept of a generative motor grammar seems to favor a schematic/computational view of cognition. On the other hand, the idea that feedback in the form of relative difficulty of playing musical styles on a given instrument shapes subsequent compositional and improvisational behavior has shades of a dynamical/ecological view of cognition.
Baily, John. 1985.
"Music Structure and Human Movement," In Musical Structure and Cognition, editors Peter Howell, Ian Cross, and R. West. London: Academic Press.
Baily, John. 1988.
Music of Afghanistan: Professional Musicians in the City of Herat. Cambridge Series in Ethnomusicology, General Editor. John Blacking, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Abstract in front of book: "This is a unique study of musicians in the city of Herat, in western Afghanistan, a celebrated centre for Islamic culture. Drawing on fieldwork undertaken during the 1970s, the author focuses on male hereditary professional musicians, while making revealing comparisons with amateurs, women and rural performers. Various aspects of the professional musicians' world are examined in turn: their 'science of music', derived from Indian music theory; the genres of art and popular music they performed; the social organisation of the music profession; the contexts of musical performance, notably wedding parties; and ideas about the place of music within Islam.
The book opens with an outline of the history of urban Herati music from the illustrious fifteenth-century Timurid period, and concludes with a discussion of the process of Afghan musical change in relation to modernism and modernisation since the late nineteenth century. The musical discussion centres on original field recordings which are available on audio cassette.
Baily offers an invaluable and detailed portrait of Herati musical life before the Marxist coup d'état: soon after his research was completed Herat was devastated by warfare.".
Baily, John. 1988.
"Anthropological and Psychological Approaches to the Study of Music Theory and Musical Cognition." Yearbook for Traditional Music 20:114-124.
Baily, John. 1992.
"Music Performance, Motor Structure, and Cognitive Models," in European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Developments and Recent Trends, editors Max Peter Baumann, Artur Simon, and Ulrich Wegner, 142-158. Intercultural Music Studies, series editor. Max Peter Baumann, 4. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
Describes psychological approaches to musical cognition, in a tradition stretching from Helmholtz to Seashore to Sloboda, and their counterparts in the history of ethnomusicology, from von Hornbostel to Blacking, Kubik, and Wegner. Calls for a review of von Hornbostel's work for psychological insights (146). Contrasts psychological with anthropological approaches to the same subject, so-called cognitive anthropology or ethno-science that analyzes the use of language in classification systems, such as the ethnomusicological work of Zemp and Feld. While the anthropological approach relies on "verbalized music theory," psychology does not. Describes his own work in studying the cognition of performance in terms of "motor grammars," in the use of "spatio-motor mode" as a source of musical creativity. Outlines "three sets of factors: the morphology of the instrument, the movement patterns used in playing it, and the structural characteristics of the music produced" (148-149). Takes exception to Sloboda's privileging of the mental representation of musical patterns over the representation of motor patterns in a "hierarchy of levels," to the implication that musical thinking in terms of body movements constitutes inferior musicianship, and to the view of Western musical composition as an ultimate triumph of the musical mind over the body. Suggests that musical and motor patterns be accorded equal importance in the cognition of performance (not unlike the interrelated "image of the act" and "image of achievement" mentioned in Whiting, et al's 1992 review of the motor control and learning literature). Presents a simple example of a "motor grammar," six ergonomic rules for right-hand strokes in playing the Afghan rubab with which the player may make musical decisions. Concludes with a call for ethnomusicologists to use some methodological ingenuity in looking further into musical cognition and enculturation, "but that does not mean that they should start undertaking controlled quantitative experiments in the field. Such an enterprise would be quite alien to the humanistic spirit of the ethnomusicological endeavour" (155). Calls for graduate training for ethnomusicologists to include coursework in music cognition, for there to be more anthropological work on musicians' introspections on their mental operations in performance, and for a new emphasis on children's music and musical enculturation.
Commentary: Although he concentrates on a "motor grammar," author does not seem to come out strongly in favor either of a computational or an ecological view of motor behavior in music. For example: "Whether the music can be said to have been generated from the instrument, or the instrument to have been adopted or designed so that certain pre-existing musical structures can be readily produced by patterns of movement, is perhaps immaterial, for both possibilities assume the importance of human factors which interact with the spatial layout" (150). Is this an ecological argument, i.e., one that seeks an integral relationship between perception and action, environment and actor? Do we not also need a theory of the relationship of instrument construction to environmental, visual, tactile, ergonomic, and musical factors?
This article provides an overview of psychological and anthropological perspectives of music cognition, with an emphasis on performance, rather than perception of music. His own research has investigated the nature of mental representations of musical performance. He proposes that there may be a motor grammar associated with playing an instrument, and that these grammars may arise from characteristics of the motor movements involved in strumming. Hence, his research seems to reflect both the motor programming theories (Rosenbaum's definition of motor programs includes a rule system) and dynamical system theories (the inclusion of motor constraints). The article is very readable, provides a hopeful account of reconciling the concerns within the domains of anthropology and psychology, and between ethnomusicology and psychology, and offers ways to expand the field of cognitive ethnomusicology. One of his desires is to expand the study of children's music and performance as a way to study how cognitive representations of music are developed; this sounds strikingly similar to the comments of Whiting et al. (1992).
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Baily, John. 1994. "Learning to Perform as a Research Technique in Ethnomusicology," in Lux Oriente: Begegnungen der Kulturen in der Musikforschung, herausgegeben von Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Uwe Pätzold, and Chung Kyo-chul, 331-348. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung, Köln, Germany: Gustav Bosse Verlag.
Baily, John. 1995. "Music and the Body," in "Working with Blacking: The Belfast Years," a special issue of the world of music, v. 37, Guest Editor John Baily, 11-30. Berlin: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
Baily, John. 1996. "Using Tests of Sound Perception in Fieldwork." Yearbook for Traditional Music 28:147-173.
Examines the Afghani response to various sounds, and their subsequent categorization. The author presented recordings of a range of stimuli (instrumental and vocal music, speech, oration, human non-speech, animal sounds, and inanimate sounds) to several Afghani subjects (musicians and non-musicians) in an informal experiment. Informants were than asked to classify the stimuli and comment about their worth as sounds. The author used a wide range of human sounds, including stimuli that seemed to be between speech and song. While there were disagreements about the definitions of some descriptive words, several dichotomies were apparent, such as that between speech and song, and between song and music (instrumental). Subjects routinely gave comments about the object making the noise rather than assessing the stimuli themselves.
Baily, John. 1997. "Afghan Perceptions of Birdsong." the world of music 39/2:51-59.
An examination of the Afghan perception and cultural importance of birdsong. The people of Afghanistan hold birdsong in general and the singing of nightingales especially, in the highest esteem. Allusions to the singing of bolbol occur in human songs, folklore, and poetry, and have a place in the religious rituals of prayer. Additionally, live birdsong is routinely used to augment instrumental performances. The author presented recordings of birdsong as well as Messiaenís ìLe Loriot,î which imitates birdsong. The reaction of the Afghani informants he presented them to was overwhelmingly positive, especially to the recordings of the birdsong. The article addresses the categorization of birdsong as song indirectly; birdsong and the singing of men are quantitatively different. Birdsong is an important feature of Afghani aesthetics, but its appreciation does not manifest itself in imitation. However, the article seemed to examine conceptions of birdsong and their relationship to larger entities (culture, aesthetics) rather than individual perceptions.
Baily, John, and Peter Driver. 1992. "Spatio-Motor Thinking in Playing Folk Blues Guitar." World of Music 34/3:57-71.
A short theoretical study of what constitutes idiomatic guitar-playing in folk blues, rock, and jazz styles. Focus is mostly on ergonomic issues; questions about cognition are raised but not substantively addressed: "How does the performer consciously represent the task performed, in terms of the planning and execution of action? How is that representation used in the process of performance? What do musicians have to tell us about their introspections regarding performance?" (59) It seems that no fieldwork or experiments were done for this paper; anecdotes and details of performance practice are culled from secondary sources, with no mention of personal experience of the authors. Cites the accordion as another instrument, like the guitar, that is used in widely different ways in different musical styles.
Bamberger, Jeanne, and Evan Ziporyn. 1992. "Getting It Wrong." The World of Music 34/3:22-56.
The contingent and multivalent quality of cultural (in this case, musical) knowledge is illustrated with two case studies. Ziporyn uses his lessons with a master Balinese gamelan teacher to get at rules about the music through making mistakes and interpreting the ensuing corrections or lack thereof, and by asking the teacher to evaluate other master players. Bamberger draws on her work with children in which she asks children to devise their own external musical representations of a rhythm in order to teach it to other children. She focuses on what appear to be "wrong" representations in order to uncover the children's logic behind them. The concluding section elegantly states the case for using both our multicultural and diverse personal points of view on music in a model of music education that allows all to participate.
Baumann, Max Peter. 1992. "The Ear as Organ of Cognition: Prolegomenon to the Anthropology of Listening," in European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Developments and Recent Trends, editors Max Peter Baumann, Artur Simon, and Ulrich Wegner, 123-141. Intercultural Music Studies, series editor. Max Peter Baumann, 4. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
Speculative essay offers a variation on the theme of the "third ear," a metaphor coined by Nietzsche and popularized recently by Joachim-Ernst Berendt which refers to the mind that continuously performs the creative act of listening. Weaves together concepts from Zen Buddhism, Jungian psychology, physics, and research findings on the brain hemispheres (Popper & Eccles, Tsunoda) to make a case for a sort of collective unconscious musical memory. The New Age movement is nowhere mentioned, but is it close to this?
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Bayard, Samuel P. 1944. Hill Country Tunes. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, No. 39. Philadelphia, PA: American Folklore Society.
Bayard, Samuel P. 1950."Prolegomena to a Study of the Principal Melodic Families of British-American Folk Song." Journal of American Folklore 63/247:1-44.
Offers what amounts to some hypotheses on mental representation of melody.
Bayard, Samuel P., editor. 1982. Dance to the Fiddle, March to the Fife: Instrumental Folk Tunes in Pennsylvania, Collected by Samuel P. Bayard, Phil R. Jack, Thomas J. Hoge, and Jacob A. Evanson. 628 pp. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Becker, Judith. 1994. "Music and Trance." Leonardo Music Journal 4:41-52.
Becker, Judith. 1998. "Music, Trancing, and 'Being'". Bloomington, IN: Society for Ethnomusicology. conference paper.
Becker, Judith, and Alton Becker. 1979. "A Grammar of the Musical Genre srepegan." Journal of Music Theory 23/1:1-44.
Authors seek to describe a repertory of 30-60 pieces of Central Java, used in wayang to accompany movements of shadow-puppets or dancers. Use a formal grammar as a way of expressing a hierarchy of stylistic constraints from the highest level (the Central Javanese tradition as a whole) down to an individual repertory category, srepegan slendro manyura. Central finding is that greatest stylistic variability is found at points in pieces where high-level constraints conflict, rather than where they are absent. Introduction addresses the music theorist audience, "central question" of "what makes a srepegan a srepegan," five kinds of musical meaning, a definition of "musical coherence" in terms of emic relevance, paradigmatic vs. syntagmatic relations, gamelan tuning systems.
Section on contours introduces the four-note gatra unit, the seven contours most commonly used in srepegan, the larger unit of a gongan that contains multiple gatras, and a flexible grammar of three gongans of three gatras each that specifies some contours, leaves others open, and allows the insertion or deletion of gatras and even entire gongans. This would appear to be analagous to Lerdahl & Jackendoff's metrical well-formedness and preference rules, but with an added melodic subsystem.
Section on srepegan pitch assignment identifies constraints coming from pathet (mode), from archaic repertory items, and from srepegan genre itself. Major pitches for each gatra fall on the final beat, in the Javanese scheme of metrical stress that is manifest in the playing of the irama part (large gongs) that they diagram in passing but do not relate to metrical well-formedness of the genre. They then state a constraint for a gongan contour in terms of representative pitch of its component gatras, essentially a time-span reduction consisting of two levels.
In section on conflicts and resolutions, they express conflicts in terms of the constraint hierarchy they have set up, and propose to resolve conflicts between preference rules by giving greater weight to more general ("higher level") constraints, without justifying this choice.
Becker, Judith. 1983. "A Reconsideration in the Form of a Dialogue." Asian Music 14/1:9-16.
A partial retraction of Becker & Becker 1979, "A Grammar of the Musical Genre Srepegan." In retrospect, they see the grammar not as an emic representation of musical structure, but rather a crutch for themselves on the way to a more complete understanding of the music, to be discarded once such understanding is otherwise articulable. A. Becker: "Our rules are crude attempts (from a Javanese perspective) to get closer to emic understanding--really translations into our English understanding of Javanese music. But translation is not the goal--emic understanding is. Translation is a necessary beginning point. There is something beyond it" (13, original emphasis).
The format of dialogue between the two authors accumulates a laundry list of reservations about their previous work: for linguist A. Becker, its problems include the structuralist assumption that structure is an inherent property of the music rather than an interaction between music and observer (misquoting Geertz's famous line the "art and the equipment to grasp it are made in the same shape [sic]"). Yet, at the end of the article J. Becker writes, "Any structuralist analysis of music.... is covertly making making claims concerning the psychology of the musician during performance in an oral tradition or the composer in a written tradition" (14). How could this be true at the same time that structure is an inherent property of the music? Yet she seizes on the psychological claim as another weakness of the approach as a false claim of capturing Javanese understanding.
For ethnomusicologist J. Becker, who writes of the "sins of structuralism," its problems include the false suggestion of a prior ur-srepegan, the exclusion of four other kinds of musical meaning, the excessive machinery of the grammar for dealing with such a small corpus (conceding Powers' 1980 criticism), and the notion that their grammar would allow them to predict anything (although they deny this at the end of the 1979 article).
Dialogue ends with an incompletely cited paraphrase from Richard Rorty (of "death of epistemology" fame?).
Bilmes, Jeffrey A. 1993. Timing Is of the Essence: Perceptual and Computational Techniques for Representing, Learning, and Reproducing Expressive Timing in Percussive Rhythm. [M.S. thesis]. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
perception/cognitive science/music/expressive timing/rhythm/ethnomusicology.
Blacking, John. 1973. How Musical Is Man? Seattle: University of Washington Press.
A collection of four lectures: "Humanly Organized Sound," "Music in Society and Culture," "Culture and Society in Music," and "Soundly Organized Humanity." Seeks to overcome ethnocentric disdain or exoticism towards the music of others. From the preface: "Many, if not all, of music's essential processes may be found in the constitution of the human body and in terms of interaction of human bodies in society. Thus all music is structurally, as well as functionally, folk music" (x-xi).
Blacking, John, editor. 1977. The Anthropology of the Body. Association of Social Anthropologists Monograph, 15. London: Academic Press.
Blacking, John. 1977. "Towards an Anthropology of the Body," In The Anthropology of the Body, editor John Blacking, 1-28. Association of Social Anthropologists Monograph, 15. London: Academic Press.
Blacking, John. 1985. "Universal Validity of Musical Analysis." ICTM UK Chapter Bulletin 12:13-23.
Blom, Jan-Petter, and Tellef Kvifte. 1986. "On the Problem of Inferential Ambivalence in Musical Meter." Ethnomusicology 30/3:491-517.
Presents two slightly different approaches to inferring the meter of an ambiguous Norwegian hardingfele performance, in a call-and-response format between the two authors. The performance comes from the gangar genre of hardingfele music, in which it is ambiguous whether the meter is 2 x 3/8 (i.e., 6/8) or 3 x 2/8 (3/4). While the fiddler's foot-tapping generally follows the 6/8 beat pattern, the melodic elements are often grouped more like 3/4. The bowing patterns add a third layer of complexity and shift among reinforcing the 6/8, reinforcing the 3/4, or slurring across the barline. Because this is an oral tradition and the players have no vocabulary for talking about meter, scholarly inference is necessary in questions of meter. The analysis of the musical meter must address the "figure-ground" problem (514), e.g., is it the melody that is clashing with the basic foot-tapping beat, or is the foot that is creating cross-rhythms with the melody?
Kvifte takes his cue from Blacking, who maintained that members of a culture share a common way of structuring musical experience. He turns this assumption into a research question, asking to what extent members of a culture all hear music the same way, and to what extent researchers can come to hear music the same way that insiders do. From his experience with hardingfele music, he proposes that the meter for dancing and the meter for the music are not the same, although he never heard any fiddler verbalize this theory. He assumes that "one can only use one single meter at a time" (495), that one can switch between meters but not perceive multiple ones simultaneously. He looks for a "simple" explanation of the melodic structure, which he claims would be one that includes cross-rhythms ("contrametric") with respect to the "footbeats." He points to one case of a fiddler who taps his foot in alignment with the melodic rhythm as a supporting piece of evidence for his dual-meter hypothesis. Kvifte ultimately questions whether the performer thinks of meter as we think of it, but, citing a parallel in Kolinski's criticisms of A.M. Jones's transcriptions of African music, that the performer "refers to some kind of common time referent neccessary [sic] to coordinate several parallel lines" (511). Since there can be no objective determination of meter in such circumstances, "One needs evidence of an 'extramusical' kind, and one needs a theory to guide the collection of evidence and for its interpretation. Our field is not exactly replete with such theories" (514).
Blom is less concerned with the question of a shared mental representation of the music, and more with the individual's "background knowledge and expectations" (500), which amount to "culturally valid representations," "emic descriptions which can account for the implicit inferential methods applied by the native performer/listener" (500). He therefore places importance on having an etic grid against which emic descriptions can be made. He fashions a grid in this case using "the motor theory of musical rhythm," devised by Fraisse and others, in which "the experience of metrical groupings, and the differentiations between accents, are kinesthetic experiences by nature and related to particular qualities in the oscillations or periodicity of moving body parts" (502). This theory shows up in the analysis in terms of metrical thesis (downbeat?) and arsis (upbeat? never explained). Because vertical movements in the folk dance are exaggerated and "consistently performed in unevenly divided beats (2:1 or 1:2) and never transformed to a 3x2/8 meter," (509) by virtue of the motor theory of rhythm he interprets them as indicators of where the beats are. He does not agree with Kvifte's hypothesis of dual dance and musical meters, "Rather, the melodic profiles and bowing figures serve to give movement content to the regular but empty footbeating metronom [sic]" (508-9).
Although the authors spend the most space discussing their differing opinions, they do agree that musical meter does not exist outside the human mind, that the acoustic signal does not contain enough information to determine it (314). They cite as evidence an experiment in which Blom played and recorded two performances of the same tune on the hardingfele using two different metrical organizations (in terms of foot -tapping, muffled for concealment from listeners) but with identical fingerings and bowings. Consulting the two scores from which Blom played, listeners could not tell one performance from the other.
Comments: Kvifte's reasoning, that with the demonstration of situations where meter cannot be objectively determined and in some cases not verbally elicited, therefore we cannot count on meter as an ever-present component of mental representation of rhythm, seems to be overly Whorfian and dismissive. I also wonder about the notion that we can perceive only one meter at a time; what of the West African approach to rhythm that supposedly is grounded on "contrametricality" from first principles? Blom, who tries to make the case for the presence of meter in terms of a motor theory of rhythm, seems to be closer to a music cognition perspective. This theory gives Blom a framework within which to explain the data by giving precedence to the dance movements, whereas Kvifte in the end simply points to many different possible interpretations and throws up his hands.
Boiles, Charles. 1967. "Tepehua Thought-Song: A Case of Semantic Signaling." Ethnomusicology 6:267-292.
Brinner, Benjamin. 1995. Knowing Music, Making Music: Javanese Gamelan and the Theory of Competence in Interaction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Carterette, Edward, and Roger Kendall. 1994. "On the Tuning and Stretched Octave of Javanese Gamelans." Leonardo Music Journal 4:59-68.
Castellano, M. A., Jamshed Bharucha, and Carol Krumhansl. 1984. "Tonal Hierarchies in the Music of North India." Journal of Experimental Psychology 113:394-412.
Chandola, A. 1977. Folk Drumming in the Himalayas: A Linguistic Approach to Music. New York:
Chenoweth, V. 1971. "Comparative-Generative Models of New Guinea Melodic Structure." American Anthropologist 73:773-782.
Cowdery, James R. 1990. The Melodic Tradition of Ireland. xv, 202 pp. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
Text itself runs just to p. 133, contains a generous number of musical examples, plus a 46-page appendix with more musical examples, plus a cassette containing approx. 90 minutes of music to accompany many of the examples. Preface acknowledges a dearth of scholarly works on Irish music, Porter's bibliography, and a growing interest in "implicit musical theory" to which this volume contributes. Focus is on sean nos, "old-style" singing, but also uses instrumental examples. Sequence of chapters seems to be designed to progress from the concrete to the increasingly abstract. Chapter 1 contains some basic facts about traditional Irish musical practice: history, language, instruments, typical contexts, etc. Chapter 2 contains interview with (and picture of) Joe Heaney, Irish singer, about performance practice. Chapter 3 profiles one tune, "The Blackbird." Chap. 4 gives a history of tune and tune family scholarship, and introduces the author's three "principles" for relating tunes to their repertory that give shape to the final three chapters. Chap. 5, "Two Outlining Families," demonstrates the phenomenon discussed by Bayard and others, i.e. the case where entire tunes exhibit similarities. Chap. 6, "Conjoining: 'The Boyne Water,'" studies how a tune of eight measures (which appears as one version of Barbara Allen in Bronson's work) is used one strain or another of various, otherwise disparate, tunes. Chap. 7, "Recombining," breaks down "The Blackbird" from Chap. 3 into 8 contiguous segments plus one more motive, and demonstrates via paradigmatic transcription how fourteen other tunes can be understood to be built by combining some subset of those 9 segments in a variety of orderings. Concluding comments make connection with Powers' 1980 New Grove article on "Mode," pointing out that his reduction diagram for "The Blackbird" represents a "generalized melody" not unlike Indian raga and Turkish maqam.
folk music/musical analysis/cognition/ethnomusicology.
Davidson, Lyle, and Bruce Torff. 1992. "Situated Cognition in Music." World of Music 34/3:120-139.
A position paper that favors the "social construction of reality" in which music cognition is always socially situated, thus "it is fruitless to attempt to isolate a cognitive core in the individual independent of cultural and local forces" (136). Three levels of analysis (anthropological, music-theoretic or "local", and personal) are illustrated through two brief field observations of music lessons, one in jazz piano and the other on the Chinese yang ch'in. Emphasis is placed on the tacit knowledge that the students bring to these contexts, and a discussion of the nature of musical intelligence ensues. A dichotomy between atomistic and culturally situated theories of cognition is made, labeled "old" and "new" respectively, and usefully summarized in tabular format. The claim for culturally situated cognition as the "new" view is overstated, since Durkheim held very similar views a hundred years ago and was echoed by Wundt twenty years thereafter (Jahoda 1982:15-16). Their apocryphal story of a musical idiot savant who could play anything at the piano after one hearing, but never with expression, belies their argument that inquiring into music cognition out of social context is "fruitless" and reveals their definition of "music" to be limited to its most expressive possible performance. They do allow a place in research for "ecologically sensitive experimental procedures" (131).
Dehoux, Vincent, and Frédéric Voisin. 1992. "Analytic Procedures with Scales in Central African Xylophone Music," in European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Developments and Recent Trends, editors Max Peter Baumann, Artur Simon, and Ulrich Wegner, 174-188. Intercultural Music Studies, series editor. Max Peter Baumann, 4. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
ML3797.7.E876 1990 MUSI.
Deva, B. Chaitanya. 1981. The Music of India: A Scientific Study. ix, 278 pp. New Delhi, India: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
Collection of past experimental work on the tambura drone, pitch measurement of vibrato and srutis (microtonal intonation), associational aspects of raga with time of day and with rasa. Speculative essays on other aspects of perception and cognition in Indian music.
Doubleday, Veronica, and John Baily. 1995. "Patterns of Musical Development Among Children in Afghanistan," in Children in the Muslim Middle East, edited by Elizabeth Warnock Fernea, 431-444. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
ethnomusicology/cognition/developmental psychology/Central Asian.
Dowling, W. Jay, and Dane L. Harwood. 1986. Music Cognition. Academic Press Series in Cognition and Perception, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
ML3838.D731 1986 MUSI.
Ellingson, Ter. 1992. "Transcription," in Ethnomusicology: An Introduction, editor Helen Myers, 110-152. xxiv, 487 pp. The Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music, New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
The growth of transcription (111-121):
Acquisition, universalism, cultural humanism, and orientalism (111-115):
traveler's accounts, Mersenne's 17th-cent. demonstrations of "the laws of nature" comparing Greek scale with Amerindian music, Rousseau's 18th-cent. demonstrations of cultural diversity, 18th cent. orientalist studies of Chinese and E. Indian music.
Tonometry, musicianship and ethnocentrism (115-118):
Piano tonometry and mistaken assumptions of scale equivalence; Villoteau's (1825) attempts with Egyptian music to show 1/3 and 2/3 tone intervals; general 19th century European realization that other musics use different tuning systems; influence of non-European scholars Tagore in India and Osawa in Japan on Alexander Ellis; influence of scholars outside of music to point out the distortions resulting from imposing European measurement standards on other musics.
Boas, Stumpf, and Ellis (118-121):
Prestige of philology in late 1800s; work by Boas in music and linguistics and collaboration with Stumpf on musical research that led both men away from academic tradition of pure speculation and into comparative studies; quotes from Stumpf on the difficulties of transcription from live performance; Ellis's work on musical scales, his contributions to linguistics towards the discovery of the phoneme and development of the IPA, his emphasis on transcribing broad classes of sound rather than narrow transcriptions of every detail.
20th century transcription: the Hornbostel paradigm (121-131):
Fletcher and Fillmore's "harmonic universalism" studies and piano transcriptions of Native American music; Gilman's (1908) reaction to them with semi-graphic transcriptions and the distinction between prescriptive and descriptive notation (not his words)
The Hornbostel Paradigm (125-131):
The compromise "between fluent legibility and objective precision;" "philological discovery" (armchair) approach to discovering musical intent through transcribing and analyzing variants; detailed outline of Hornbostel and Abraham's "Proposals for the Transcription of Exotic Melodies" (1909).
Developments in Theory and Method (131-144):
Quantity and Quantification (131):
Questions of desirability of transcription arising from increased number and availability of source recordings; Statistical-comparative work by Densmore, Herzog, Merriam (see Freeman and Merriam 1956), and Lomax; breakdown of this "paradigm" as Kunst and followers began to relate musical sound to the rest of culture.
Technology and Tonometry (131-132):
Wax cylinder remained the field recording standard for decades, finally replaced by disc, wire, tape, and film; ethnomusicologist's manipulations of performance practice to accede to the constraints of early recording technology; role of tape counters, film and video frames, and computer sampling for time measurement; use of monochord, stroboscope, electronic tuners.
Traces history back to 1870s; early uses by Gilman, Stumpf, Goddard, Densmore; examples shown of Metfessel's 1926 diagrams of African-American singing, plus a Seeger melograph; problems of too much detail, high cost and limited availability of equipment.
Theoretical Issues: Prescriptive and Descriptive, 'Phonetic' and 'Phonemic' (135):
Seeger's objections to the use of Western notation for descriptive transcription; Hood's alternative suggestions of indigenous notation, Seeger melograph, or Labanotation; characterization by some ethnomusicologists of elaborately detailed transcriptions as 'etic' and less detailed ones as 'emic,' although better terms would be "narrow" and "broad," after Ellis.
Individual Differences and Subjectivity (135-137):
Summarizes three differing approaches to symposia where multiple scholars compare their transcriptions: the 1964 SEM project, a 1969 Japanese publication, and a 1981 French effort; Reid (1977)-Gutzwiller (1979) debate over possibility and desirability of a "cross-cultural transcription system."
Breakdown of the Hornbostel Paradigm (137-141):
Declining relevance of transcription in today's intellectual climate; view of Hornbostel, Gilman and others that musical intervals were not indigenous to Pueblo music but rather epiphenomena of the transcription process; Kunst and Hood's refutation of Ellis's equipentatonic hypothesis concerning Javanese slendro tuning; the rise of cipher notation in the study of Indonesian and other musics; the diversity of approaches to notation of African music. Author gives an example from his own research of the potential distortions of Western notation and of autotranscription by comparing four representations of Tibetan melody: indigenous notation; his own graphic notation using five-line staff and continuous curves for pitch, plus chronometic indication of percussive events and absolute time on separate lines; Western notation; and a sonogram. Presentation suffers from vertical alignment but lack of uniform time scale among the four transcriptions.
Conceptual Transcription (141-142):
Identification of trend "away from classical objective-discovery transcriptions towards conceptual transcriptions that seek to furnish a graphic-acoustic definition of the essential concepts and logical principles of a musical system" (141); essential features are already known through fieldwork; method of transcription grows out of fieldwork understanding, not from any universal system. Conceptual transcription is a third category distinct from descriptive and prescriptive, in that it represents, to quote Doris Stockmann (1979): "precisely and in visually comprehensible form, musical factors essential to a piece and to the carriers of a music culture" (quoted on 142). Quotes A.M. Jones (1959:114) in support of this position. In this discussion never appear the words emic, etic, insider, outsider.
Transcriptional Alternatives (142-144):
Complex modifications of Western notation by Bartok, Gilman, Ballantine, Tracey, Berliner; of solfege systems by Ellingson, Wade; graph notation including use of lines (Jones, List), bars (Zemp), boxes (Koetting, DeVale), and Reck's (1977) full-scale embrace; unique uses of cyclical (Becker & Becker), spiral (Lortat-Jacob), and 3-D color topography (Catherine Ellis 1985); transcriptions of musical lines heard by musicians although not physically presented as such (Kubik, Blacking, Sumarsam); inclusion of extramusical elements such as cosmology (Fletcher) and audience interaction (Qureshi).
Techniques of Transcription (144-147):
Surveys attempts at recipes for ethnomusicological transcription. Comments on the futility of prescribing "universally valid procedures" for transcription, then goes on nevertheless to propose some "principles" to follow for learning the art of transcription. Notable among these is to sight-sing and tap along with the transcription as a test of its accuracy. Recommends "not to regard transcription as a technical procedure, but as a complexly specialized reflection of ethnomusicology," to find value primarily in process of transcription rather than the product. Notes that technology is changing what is economically feasible to publish as well as what is technically possible. Cites Zemp's attempt at a "non-print transcription" in the form of film animation.
Falck, Robert, and Timothy Rice, editors. 1982. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Music. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press.
Fales, Cornelia. 1995. "Acoustic Intuition of Complex Auditory Phenomena by "Whipered inanga" Musicians of Burundi." The World of Music 37/3:3-35.
Fales, Cornelia, and Stephen McAdams. 1994. "The Fusion and Layering of Noise and Tone: Implications for Timbre in African Instruments." Leonardo Music Journal 4:69-78.
Feld, Steven. 1981. "'Flow Like a Waterfall': The Metaphors of Kaluli Musical Theory." Yearbook for Traditional Music 13:22-47.
Feld, Steven. 1983. "Sound as a Symbolic System: The Kaluli Drum." Bikmaus 4/3:79-89.
Looks to demonstrate that acoustic simplicity of sounds is not an index of the depth of their social meaning. Discusses drum timbre with the help of a sonogram; drum construction and symbolism; and performance. Focuses on musical meaning, aesthetics.
Feld, Steven. 1984. "Communication, Music, and Speech About Music." Yearbook for Traditional Music 16:1-18.
Replaces the question, "What does music communicate?" with 3 questions about "music communication processes": 1) What is their shape? 2) How are they activated? 3) How do they implicate interpretation? Draws from several theoretical sources, including Charles Seeger, Leonard Meyer, Nattiez, Lidov, Boiles, Tagg, and Geertz. Concentrates on the role of the listener.
Feld, Steven. 1990. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression, 2nd ed. Conduct and Communication Series, General Editors. Dell Hymes, Gillian Sankoff, and Henry Glassie, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Describes one song genre of a Papua New Guinea people by extensive analysis of indigenous terminology, myths, and music, using both verbal and visual description. Added chapter details native reception of the book.
Feld, Steven, and Aaron A. Fox. 1994. "Music and Language." Annual Review of Anthropology 23:25-53.
Harvey, Nigel. 1985. "Vocal Control in Singing," In Musical Structure and Cognition, editors Peter Howell, Ian Cross, and R. West, 287-332. London: Academic Press.
Outlines singing as a motor skill involving the coordination of three subsystems: exhalation, phonation, and articulation. Description is driven by a computational model, but incorporates special-purpose "peripherals" (e.g., "stretch sensitive mechanoreceptors may be expected to provide information about the various other factors that could be included in the exhalation schema as additional initial condition variables" (298)). Analyzes the three subsystems each in terms of three component schemas: a "parameter specification schema" that relates muscle contractions to movement outcome; an "outcome specification schema" that relates the movement to the desired auditory experience of the listener, and a "sensation specification schema" that relates the auditory experience of the listener with the auditory and proprioceptive experience of the singer. QUESTION: ARE THERE NOT THREE ANALOGOUS SCHEMA FOR INSTRUMENT PLAYING? (there certainly are, at least to the extent that the effects of room acoustics are the same for both, see pp. 301-302). The output of one schema serves as input to the next in cumulative fashion (see diagrams on pp. 303, 312, 319). Through rehearsal of particular songs and in particular acoustic environments, the singer precomputes the necessary initial conditions for each vocal phrase based on its requirements of pitch, loudness, length, and so on. Argues for the existence of schema based on the observation that different motor programs are required to produce the same result according to changes in initial conditions, e.g. combinations of inspiratory and expiratory muscle activity based on the amount of breath taken and the subglottal pressure required (295-296). Includes a good bit of detail and relevant citations on the physics and physiology of singing, e.g. reasons why vowels sound different to the singer (bone conduction, the effect of the "singer's yawn" on the middle ear (319)) than they do to the listener. Believes strongly in Schmidt's "variability of practice" hypothesis, that the singer needs to exercise a wide range of initial conditions (both internal and environmental) and outcomes in order to build reliable schemas, making the analogy of linear regression with widely scattered as opposed to tightly clustered data points (290-291). Points out that the larynx alone has many degrees of freedom in movement, and that acquiring a sophisticated skill requires initial control then gradual unfreezing of those degrees until all of the mechanisms can be used in a flexible yet controlled manner (323). Questions whether the desired outcomes are stored as relative or absolute values (324). Proposes a final diagram (326) of "information flow in the singer:" listener's desired auditory perception->auditory input required by performer->proprioceptive input required by performer->movement parameters to be inserted into motor program->song (which then flows back to listener). Discusses convincingly why all of these steps are necessary.
Commentary: The comparison to a straw-man behaviorist explanation of motor skills in singing is a throwaway (291); it neither adds to the argument nor answers the challenge of ecological models. Author occasionally uses ecological arguments himself to explain certain details, such as the Lombard effect in which the speaker increases output intensity to maintain constant loudness when background noise is introduced (300). However, he seems predisposed to favor adaptational theories that lead to a general computational ability rather than a specialized one (see discussion of virtual pitch, p. 311). Although he makes occasional reference to other kinds of vocal production (Tibetan chant (Large & Murray 1981), barbershop singing (Hagerman & Sundberg 1980)) and the need for separate schemas for different styles of singing (309), his central point of departure is Western classical vocal technique (e.g. the avoidance of registral breaks (307)). The way that his model precomputes all initial conditions through practice (302) does not seem to leave enough flexibility for the singer to deal with improvisational contexts. The sensation specification schema assumes that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between the singer's perception of loudness and the listener's (300-301), but does not take into account the disproportionate effect that the singer's formant has on loudness perception in the listener (although this formant is mentioned as a by-product of positioning of the larynx (308), a perception not shared by the singer due to the filtering qualities of the bone conduction of sound that favors the fundamental over the higher frequencies (317).
Harvey argues that a singer's ability to control processes of exhalation, phonation and articulation, as well as the ability to coordinate all these processes, stems from the acquisition of abstract internal models of behavior. These are termed schemata and are akin to a mental regression equation that relates some internal state (initial conditions) to a desired output. For each of the aforementioned processes, Harvey suggests that three types of schemata govern vocal control. The parameter specification schema allows basic control over the process at hand (e.g., in exhalation, this schema allows the singer to maintain control over subglottal pressure). The outcome specification schema relates this controlled internal state to the kind of vocal output that the singer will perceive. Thirdly, the sensation specification schema relates the output that the singer perceives to the kind of output that the listener wants to hear. This third schema type relies entirely on the singer's ability to incorporate verbal reports from an "expert listener" into active singing. Similarly, none of the schemata are meant to describe the active process of singing that entails real-time adaptation. In this way, Harvey's approach adopts the perspective of a generalized motor program, where the parameters of movement are specified prior to that movement. I see two main flaws in this approach. First, Harvey opposes this approach to singing to an "associationist" approach,arguing that the latter woule require that a singer store each occasion at which vocal control is exercised, and that the singer would be unable to generalize between these instances. However, it seems that the core of Harvey's schema approach IS associational - as he argues that the process of schema acquisition depends on the acquisition of "data points" that are generated from practice (although not during practice, presumably). Additionally, the fact that this approach only accounts for modifications that are made following a performance seems a strong shortcoming, especially given the complexity of the approach as it is laid out in the article. The ecologically-based approach adovated by Whiting, Vogt & Verijken (1992) handles this second problem. Given evidence such as the Lombard effect (which Harvey refers to many times), it is odd to think that a successful model of sining could not account for real-time adaptation.
Peter Q. Pfordresher.
Harwood, Dane L. 1976. "Universals in Music: A Perspective From Cognitive Psychology." Ethnomusicology 22:521-533.
Hopkins, Pandora. 1982. "Aural Thinking," Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Music, editors Robert Falck, and Timothy Rice, 143-161. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press.
Taking a few pages from Rudolph Arnheim's work on visual thinking, author reports cross-cultural rhythmic perceptions of three highly trained and educated musicians from different traditions (Western, Greek, and South Indian) of five different recordings of the springar genre from the Norwegian hardingfele tradition. She describes this dance genre as "extremely esoteric," having "three sometimes uneven beats whose durations are interpreted differently in the various regions of hardingfele territory" (143). The sample recordings of springar were taken from two different regional styles of playing, and were commercially produced with foot-tapping removed. A second set of recordings were made of the same pieces with foot-tapping present, so that the beat locations could be mechanically measured. The three musicians listened to the tape of five examples, requested repeated listenings of one of them, did some tapping (see diagram on p. 152), and were interviewed on tape about their perceptions of the rhythmic structure. Author analyzed these data in (Arnheim's?) terms of "initial perceptions," "three different perceptions" (comparison), "search for appropriateness" (after feedback on initial perceptions), "aural concepts," and "judgments." None of the musicians found a rhythmic cycle on first hearing, even though they were told ahead of time to listen for such. Then they tried tapping out some version of a cycle. In doing so, the S. Indian musician relied on tala concepts, the Greek on Balkan rhythms, and the European violinist on the melodic contour to approximate the rhythmic cycle of the springar. The musicians were aware that their efforts were not entirely successful, and that without knowing the tradition they were probably not going to arrive at an "appropriate" interpretation. The author uses this example to reinforce the notion that although Gestalt formation is immediate, it is also based on previous knowledge and experience, and therefore it is tantamount to concept formation and is not a direct percept. The "aural concepts" that the musicians develop upon repeated listenings continue to implicate their previous rhythmic and melodic training, although they come to closer approximations of the Norwegian footbeating, shown in one transcription (p. 157) as a three-beat cycle with ratios of beat durations 15:14:10 (although the 15 was notated as a quarter note and the 10 as a dotted eighth, implying a 4:3 relationship instead of 3:2). The closing paragraph refers to published transcriptions of hardingfele and their limited descriptive, and not prescriptive, value.
Commentary: One potential methodological problem here is with the "re-recording" of the samples to include an audible and measurable "footbeat." It is not clear whether the re-recording involved simply adding a "foot track" to the existing recording, or if it was an entirely new performance. Either approach would seem to involve inaccuracies in the determination of beat placement, leaving aside the question that Blom & Kvifte raise of whether or not the foot-tapping can even be considered as indicative of the meter.
The underlying problem being approached was to answer the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis concerning the primacy of language in thought by demonstrating the existence of "aural thinking." Yet the data, except for some tapping, was all linguistic. This in itself is not a weakness of the study, however, because what the musicians said was used to point to the "aural thinking" that motivated the speech, namely the template of their past experiences that they were using to help them grapple with the novel stimulus: "any time we hear a piece of unfamiliar music, we perceive it automatically through comparisons with familiar music." This is precisely the opposite finding from Krumhansl's (1990) summary description of the results of cross-cultural experiments concerning the perception of tonal hierarchies. Could both viewpoints be right, each in its own domain of rhythm and pitch? Or is it unacceptable to allow such conflicting accounts to coexist? Is one set of findings more compelling than the other on methodological grounds?
Hopkins, Pandora. 1986. Aural Thinking in Norway: Performance and Communication with the hardingfele. New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.
Iyer, Vijay S. 1998. Microstructures of Feel, Macrostructures of Sound: Embodied Cognition in West African and African-American Musics. Ph.D. dissertation. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley. http://cnmat.cnmat.berkeley.edu/People/Vijay/
cognition/ethnomusicology/West African/African-American/expressive timing.
Johnson, Anna. 1984. "Voice Physiology and Ethnomusicology: Physiological and Acoustical Studies of the Swedish Herding Song." Yearbook for Traditional Music 16:42-66.
Johnson, Anna, Johan Sundberg, and Hermann Wilbrand. 1985. "'Kölning': Study of Phonation and Articulation in a Type of Swedish Herding Song". in editors. A. Askenfeldt, S. Felicetti, E. Jansson, and J. Sundberg, SMAC 83: Proc
eedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, July 28-August 1, 1983, 187-202. Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Music.
Kartomi, Margaret J. 1990. On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, editors. Philip Bohlman, and Bruno Nettl, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Keil, Charles. 1979. Tiv Song. xiii, 301 pp. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Keil, Charles. 1987. "Participatory Discrepancies and the Power of Music." Cultural Anthropology 2/3:275-283.
Keil, Charles. 1995. "The Theory of Participatory Discrepancies: A Progress Report." Ethnomusicology 39/1:1-19.
Kessler, Edward J., Christa Hansen, and Roger Shepard. 1984. "Tonal Schemata in the Perception of Music in Bali and the West." Music Perception 2/2:131-165.
Kippen, James. 1987. "An Ethnomusicological Approach to the Analysis of Musical Cognition." Music Perception 5/2:173-195.
Kippen, James. 1992. "Tabla Drumming and the Human-Computer Interaction." World of Music 34/3:72-98.
Gives overview of ten years of research with computer scientist Bernard Bel on grammars of tabla improvisation, from the Bol Processor, in which rules were entered into the hierarchical knowledge base and then adjusted by hand based on feedback from informants, to the QAVAID (Urdu acronym!) program which infers grammars automatically from input strings. Glimpses of methodology are given, with further references. Describes how the technology helped to sustain informants' interest in the project. Citing Searle's "Chinese room" conundrum, he admits that the grammars produced are not an accurate model of musicians' knowledge of tabla improvisation of even this one genre, but discusses how the work has pointed to enduring ambiguities in musical structure and forced him to reassess his analysis about how improvisations are constructed. Points out that most of his work has been an attempt to capture musical knowledge from observing behavior, and that such musical knowledge cannot be equated with music cognition, although it is related to it in "complex ways.".
Kippen, James, and Bernard Bel. 1989. "The Identification and Modelling of a Percussion 'language,' and the Emergence of Musical Concepts in a Machine-learning Experimental Set-up." Computers and the Humanities 23/3:99-214.
Kippen, James, and Bernard Bel. 1992. "Bol Processor Grammars," Understanding Music with AI, eds. M. Balaban, K. Ebcioglu, and O. Laske, 366-401. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.
Kippen, James, and Bernard Bel. 1992. "Modeling Music with Grammars: Formal Language Representation in the Bol Processor," Computer Representations and Models in Music, eds. A. Marsden, and A. Pople, 367-400. London, UK: Academic Press.
Kippen, James, and Bernard Bel. 1994. "Computers, Composition and the Challenge of 'New Music' in Modern India." Leonardo Music Journal 4:79-84.
Journal abstract: "The use of sophisticated computer systems in the design and performance of music has taken place in the context of a society that demands novelty and expects tecyhnology to play a leading role in extending the boundaries of what is musically possible. This article describes a different approach to the use of technology in composition and an alternative technology that grew out of research into the complex rhythmic intricacies of Indian drum music. The authors present the new version of their Bol Processor and explain its time accuracy, flexibility and capacity to manipulate highly complex polymetric symbols. The authors' work has inspired further developments by Indian researchers who are rising to the challenge of developing a technology built around concepts familiar to the Indian musical mind as an alternative to models dependent upon Western concepts.".
Kippen, Jim. 1988. "On the Uses of Computers in Anthropological Research." Anthropological Quarterly 29:317-320.
Kippen, Jim, and Bernard Bel. 1989. "Can a Computer Help Resolve the Problem of Ethnographic Description?" Anthropological Quarterly 62/3:131-144.
Koetting, James. 1970. "Analysis and Notation of West African Drum Ensemble Music." Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology 1/3:116-146.
Argues that West African drum ensemble music and Western music are similar on some levels but highly divergent on others: "both the drum ensemble music and Western music have (1) intimate interrelation of rhythm and sonority (2) within a highly structured interrelation of patterned levels (3) on a common rhythmic base; but in the drum ensemble music (1) the interrelation of rhythm and sonority is more highly structured, (2) the interrelation of patterns is more intimate, (3) the rhythmic base is less structured" (124). Cf. the ongoing debate (in 1986 Ethnomusicology issue, addressed also by Temperley i.p.) over how comparable are Western and African music. For the point on the interrelation of rhythm and sonority, cf. Dudley's article on steel pan. Is aware of the fine line of the potential both for enlightenment and for confusion in comparing the two, and his ultimate goal is "the study of the drum ensemble music on its own structural terms" (124). "Problems arising from a metrical approach to West African drum ensemble music... have beset most scholars, including Africans, who have tried to talk about drum ensemble rhythms in terms of the music itself" (123).
Seeks to avoid biases of Western notation (esp. metrical biases, one presumes) by using the "Time Unit Box System" (TUBS) developed by UCLA drum ensemble instructor Philip Harland. System consists of squares organized horizontally by part and vertically by concurrent events; the number of boxes per unit time along the horizontal axis is determined by the music being transcribed as the "fastest pulse" (actually density referent, whether felt as a pulse or not). Simple dots are used inside the boxes to indicate an event. Additional letters and symbols give more information about the event, e.g. low vs. high stroke on the bell, type of drum stroke, etc.
Moment of truth on p. 134: relationship of kaganu part to gangokui by instructor, to four-beat axatse part by students. Raises question as to whether the six-beat master drum introduction shown on p.129 should be understood as a cross-rhythm to the four-beat dance step or as "quite dominant.".
Koetting, James. 1986. "What Do We Know About African Rhythm?" Ethnomusicology 30/1:58-63.
Contains an articulate defense of studying how musical performance is accomplished in its own right. Essentially makes a case for a cognitive ethnomusicology that is essential, rather than superfluous to, ethnomusicology as a whole.
Koskoff, Ellen. 1992. "Introduction." The World of Music 34/3:3-6.
Gives observations on recent intersections of ethnomusicology with cognitive psychology, and brief synopses of articles in this issue, by authors Tolbert, Bamberger & Ziporyn, Baily & Driver, Kippen, Vaughn, and Davidson & Torff. "... the authors move away from the older 'experimental vs. humanistic' controversy towards a more friendly, collaborative arena where multiple understandings of knowledge are mutually embedded." Her emphasis on bridge-building and "friendliness" is a spirit followed by most of the authors, all but Davidson & Torff (see annotation).
Kubik, Gerhard. 1964. "Xylophone Playing in Southern Uganda." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 94/2:138-159.
Kubik, Gerhard. 1994. Theory of African Music, v. Volume 1. 464 pp., 1 compact disc Intercultural Music Studies, Edited by. Max Peter Baumann, 7. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
ML3760.K82 v. 1.
Lomax, Alan J. 1968. Folk Song Style and Culture. Publication No. 88. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
folk music/comparative musicology/ethnomusicology/cognition/cross-cultural psychology.
Mazo, Margarita. 1994. "Lament Made Visible: A Study of Paramusical Elements in Russian Lament," in Themes and Variations: Writings on Music in Honor of Rulan Chao Pian, edited by Bell Yung, and Lam Joseph S.C., Produced by Editions Orphée, 164-211. Columbus, OH: President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Institute of Chinese Studies of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Gives some background on lament practices in rural Russia, most notably that laments have no clear beginning or end, that they take the form of a personal or ritual expression, they are not rehearsed (172), and that they are sometimes performed by the grieving parties themselves and at other times by professionals who effectively simulate the same affect. Analyzes two lament performances using sound analysis software that includes a pitch tracker, spectrograms, and spectral envelopes. Compares vocal production in lament with that in speech and singing, taking special note of voiced inhalations and (voiced) gasping exhalations at the ends of phrases. "Conspicuous nasalization, high pitch (often in the passaggio register, an area just at the edge of the falsetto voice), relatively prominent higher harmonics, instability of amplitude, tense muscles, and constricted air flow all help distinguish the voice quality in lamenting from that of other utterances. A local fluctuation in intensity with asymmetrical peaks and dips within one utterance is also characteristic of lament intoning. Such an unusual distribution of amplitude and its continuous modulcation within one articulatory utterance suggest an intense and strained vocal production during lamenting. They also suggest the instability of physiological conditions that control the production" (194). Notes that many vocal effects in lament, such as vocal fry and glottal coup, "have been observed in pathological rather than regular speech" (196). Maintains that "the instability of the pitch level in lamenting cannot be random" (206). Of the many features of lament that she discusses, "These aspects are not controlled by any single mechanism. The linking of various domains is intricate and nonlinear..." (206). Argues that similar shapes appear in different features and suggests that chaos theory holds some answers (207).
Merriam, Alan. 1990. "African Music Rhythm and Concepts of Time-reckoning," in Ethnomusicological Theory and Method, 293-311. The Garland Library of Readings in Ethnomusicology, editor. Kay Kaufman Shelemay, Vol. 2. New York, NY: Garland Publishing.
This article discusses Western and African concepts of time, and how these differences may be reflected in Western interpretations of African rhythms. Merriam helpfully points out four major assumptions Western scholars have made about African rhythm, and points out that these assumptions have been made by those outside of the culture (his definitions of emic and etic are ones involving insider/outsider distinctions).
These four assumptions are rooted in the Western linear conceptualization of time. Unfortunately, Merriam points out that there are other Western ways of thinking about time, but he does not describe any of them. It would have been interesting to find out what these other ways are. The linear perspective leads to the assumption of an underlying pulse must exist in African rhythms, and has lead to ethnomusicologists to find the instrument that carries the pulse, and identify the metric organization of music. However, African perceptions of time are not linear; instead they emphasize the freshness of experience and time as associated with other events (seasons, activities), and not externalized by the ticks of a clock. Merriam concludes that not enough work on African rhythm has been done from the perspective of African conceptualizations of time.
As an aside, I think that Ruth Stone's (1985) distinction between inner time (subjective experience) vs. outer time (musical coordination of beats) is a very interesting one, and an important distinction one Merriam does not make, but implicitly assumes.
Meyer, Leonard B. 1960. "Universalism and Relativism in the Study of Ethnic Music." Ethnomusicology 4/2:49-54.
Meyer, Rosalee K., Caroline Palmer, and Margarita Mazo. 1998. "Affective and Coherence Responses to Russian Laments." Music Perception 16/1:135-150.
Journal abstract: "We investigated the effects of formal characteristics (musical phrase structure) and nonverbal vocal gestures (gasps characteristic of crying) on affective and coherence responses to Russian laments by listeners who were familiar or unfamiliar with Russian village music. Laments were presented in semantically compatible or incompatible phrase orders with gasps present or absent. Listeners rated laments on an affective response scale (sad/happy) and a musical coherence scale (phrases follow well/phrases follow poorly). All listeners judged laments as sadder when gasps were present than absent, but effects of phrase order on affective responses were dependent on listenersí musical background. Listeners familiar with Russian laments judged all excerpts as coherent, but listeners unfamiliar with laments judged the excerpts as less coherent when gasps were present than absent. Listeners' emotional and cognitive responses to music were affected by both culture-transcendent factors (gasps characteristic of crying) and culture-specific factors (phrase structure).".
Moisala, Pirkko. 1991. Cultural Cognition in Music: Continuity and Change in the Gurung Music of Nepal. 427 pp. Suomen etnomusikologisen seuran julkaisuja, 4. Jyväskylä, Finland: Gummerus Kirjapaino Oy.
Moisala, Pirkko. 1993. "Cognitive Study of Music as Culture - Basic Premises for 'Cognitive Ethnomusicology'". in Louhivuori, Jukka. edited by, Proceedings from the First International Conference on Cognitive Musicology, 186-198. article.
Thoroughly exemplifies the interests and ambivalences that many ethnomusicologists have with respect to cognitive studies. Examines the problems involved in connecting cognition research to the ethnomusicological study of music as culture, i.e., of relating individual to collective representations of music. Criticizes artificial intelligence research in music for its materialist assumption that all musical processes are manifested directly in sound. Summarizes work by ethnomusicologists on human musicality (Blacking), in cognitive anthropology (Sakata, Zemp, Feld), and linguistics (Boiles, Durbin, Chandola, Chenoweth, Herndon, Hughes). Introduces from Russian literature in psychology a "theory of activity" that purports to integrate internal and external (e.g., individual vs. group) factors in cognition, connects to a Blacking theory of human development. Uses this theory of activity to support her contention that "only musical performance as a complete whole provides a sufficiently holistic point of departure for the study of culture-bound processes of music" (original emphasis). Dismisses experimental psychological studies of non-Western music as ethnocentric and uncontextual. Dismisses linguistic studies for their refusal to recognize music as a "primary modelling system," although she admits we don't know much of what the musical modelling system consists. Dismisses AI studies for ignoring cultural factors. Cites work in social cognition by people such as Vygotsky, Michael Cole, Jean Lave, and V. Curran as the best model for cognitive ethnomusicology to "examine musical cognition in the framework of mental models of culture in real-life situations.".
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1987. "Sémiologie des jeux vocaux Inuit." Semiotica 66/1-3:159-178.
This article presents an overview of the results of research into Inuit vocal games by the "Musical Semiology Research Group" based in Montreal. From this group, Nicole Beaudry, Claude Charron, and Denise Harvey conducted research on this genre among the Inuit of northern Quebec and southern Baffin Island. This group believes it is valid and necessary to apply paradigmatic structural models (i.e. models of musical semiology developed by Nattiez and others) in an area of research that has typically been dominated by a strictly ethnographic approach.
Nattiez first gives a brief overview of the katajjait (pl.) genre and of a method that has been developed for transcribing it musically. He discusses the genre’s geographic distribution and carefully distinguishes it from other forms of Inuit music, poetry, and storytelling.
While certain anthropological aspects of Inuit vocal games have been stressed in the past, the games can also be viewed, from a semiological perspective, as "multifunctional symbolic forms." They have "form" in that they exhibit specific, identifiable combinations of voicing, breathing, intonation, and rhythm. They have "symbolic" form in that, in addition to vocables (syllables without signification), the games may incorporate personal names, names of objects, animal and natural sounds, etc. They have "multifunctional" symbolic form in that they can be performed at any time, i.e. they are not tied to a particular context. While the ludic function dominates, they can also be used for other purposes such as quieting babies. An aesthetic function also exists, for participants cultivate certain desirable sounds and not others.
Nattiez reports that over 500 katajjait were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by Beaudry, Charron, and Harvey. For demonstrative purposes in this article, 74 katajjait collected by Denise Harvey in Payne Bay are used. The method of analysis for this corpus used by this research group is as follows: 1) break down each kataijjaq (sg.) into its constituent motifs; 2) put each motif into a table that indicates its morpheme (vocable), rhythm, pattern of voicing and breathing, and tonal contour; 3) from these tables, develop a motivic taxonomy, which can be taken as a formal "stylistic description" of the genre. Nattiez lays out the various motivic types and subtypes that the research group found. This is analysis on the neutral (immanent, structural) level.
An analysis of the poietic level, the level dealing with the process of creation, can be deduced from the neutral analysis. Nattiez defends this approach against attacks that might come from proponents of ethnotheory. While not denying in general the value of verbal reports, in this case the informants’ comments were unhelpful in establishing a generative theory for katajjait, so one must be deduced from the katajjait themselves.
Nattiez addresses a temptation among researchers of katajjait to interpret certain structural characteristics as being a direct result of the Inuit conception of time. Apparently Inuit conceive of time non-linearly and are not interested in teleological, cause-and-effect relationships. This would seem to map nicely on to the open-ended, aleatoric nature of katajjait, but Nattiez cautions that this time conception was inferred while analyzing myths and drum-and-dance songs, and is not automatically applicable to a completely different activity, the katajjait. Overeager mapping of cultural structures on to immanent structures is "culturalism", in Nattiez’s view.
Nattiez hopes to have demonstrated that the goal of musical semiology in the arena of Inuit vocal games has not been to reduce these phenomena to global, univocal explanations, but to describe the specificity of the forms present in culture and to determine the exact nature of their relationships to each other.
The article is an interesting overview of the genre as it attempts to synthesize and comment on the research results of others. It brings up some important issues such as the value of ethnotheory as opposed to deductive theorizing by an outsider. My overall impression, however, is jumbled: it was difficult to grasp how the analyses described and the issues raised supported any central thesis.
It was not clear to me how the ostensibly semiological approach lent any special tools or insights to the analyses.
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1990. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music, translator Carolyn Abbate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1990. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music, translator Carolyn Abbate, ix-xv, 3-37. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Nettl, Bruno, and Philip V. Bohlman, eds. 1991. Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
ethnomusicological theory/psychology of music/mine.
Patterson, William Morrison. 1917. "The Appeal of the Primitive Jazz." Literary Digest 55:28-29.
lab study of jazz rhythm, quoted in Collier 1993.
Perlman, Marc. 1983. "Notes on 'A Grammar of the Musical Genre Srepegan'." Asian Music 14/1:17-29.
Refutes a number of the details of Becker & Becker 1979. Suggests that the Beckers' outright rejection of their previous work is an overreaction, that it contains some valuable ideas worth pursuing. Stops short of suggesting a revision of the grammar.
Perlman, Marc, and Carol Krumhansl. 1996. "An Experimental Study of Internal Interval Standards in Javanese and Western Musicians." Music Perception 14/2:95-116.
Powers, Harold S. 1980. "Language Models and Musical Analysis." Ethnomusicology 24/1:1-60.
Prögler, J. A. 1995. "Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm Section." Ethnomusicology 39/1:21-54.
Quigley, Colin. 1993. "Catching Rhymes: Generative Musical Processes in the Compositions of a French Newfoundland Fiddler." Ethnomusicology 37/2:155-200.
Quigley, Colin. 1995. Music From the Heart: Compositions of a Folk Fiddler. xiii, 273 pp. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Rahn, Jay. 1983. A Theory for All Music. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Rouget, Gilbert. 1977. "Music and Possession Trance," In The Anthropology of the Body, editor John Blacking, 233-239. Association of Social Anthropologists Monograph, 15. London: Academic Press.
Rouget, Gilbert. 1985. Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations Between Music and Possession. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Rubin, David C. 1995. Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-Out Rhymes. xiii, 385 pp. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Sakata, Hiromi Lorraine. 1983. Music in the Mind: The Concepts of Music and Musician in Afghanistan. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
Schloss, W. Andrew. 1985. On the Automatic Transcription of Percussive Music: From Acoustic Signal to High-Level Analysis. [dissertation]. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Schneider, Albrecht. 1991. "Psychological Theory and Comparative Musicology," in Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, editors Bruno Nettl, and Philip V. Bohlman, 293-317. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Traces the history of one cluster of ideas from Stumpf's Tonpsychologie to the present day, namely that of pitch distance and of equal-tempered scales ascribed to various cultures. Cites impact of phenomenology, Ellis' tone measurements, psychophysical theory; subsequent impact of Hornbostel's evolutionary theories of scales. Reports modern psychoacoustical findings on the pitch ambiguity of inharmonic tones, such as Javanese gongs, that cast serious doubts on the tone measurements of Ellis and others.
ethnomusicological theory/psychology of music/ethnomusicology/cognition.
Seashore, Carl E. 1967. Psychology of Music. 408 pp. New York, NY: Dover.
See chapter on "Primitive Music", 346-359.
Seeger, Anthony. 1987. Why Suyà Sing. Cambridge Series in Ethnomusicology, General Editor. John Blacking, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Seeger, Charles. 1958. "Prescriptive and Descriptive Music Writing." Musical Quarterly 64/2:184-195.
Seeger, Charles. 1966. "Versions and Variants of the Tunes of 'Barbara Allen': As sung in traditional singing styles in the United States and recorded by field collectors who have deposited their discs and tapes in the Archive of American Folk Song in the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C." Selected Reports 1/1:120-167.
Begins with a pithy summary of the ontological problem. End of first paragraph: "...this sameness refers not to any one thing but to a notion regarding two separate things--A's singing and B's singing. This notion is a third thing, namely, a class of things to which both belong, which is to say that what is sung is distinguishable from the singing of it" (120, emphasis in original). Acknowledges tune family work of Bayard and Bronson, but urges consideration of a "majority usage" viewpoint as well, which he characterizes thusly: "The tune-family approach, then, leaves us with the impression that tunes and words are utterly promiscuous in their relationships and that marriages of any permanence between them are illusory. The majority-usage approach, on the other hand, leaves us with the impression that although both spouses are freqently unfaithful to their common-law kind of union, yet it has a permanence of a sort not lightly to be regarded" (122). Refers to another article of his own (Seeger 1960) that describes in more detail a tune classification scheme. He returns to the topic of tune versions by the end of the paper, where he notes that there are two main distinct tunes for the ballad Barbara Allen. Devotes some space to delimiting the relative ages and geographical provenances of the two tunes, as well as the influences of commercial recordings and instrumental accompaniment on the sung versions that he analyzed. He observes that although distinct, the two tunes have enough in common that it would not be difficult to transform a variant of one into a variant of the other, cites three principal steps he thinks would be required to do so, and claims that in only five or six stanzas one could go from singing one tune to singing the other in practically imperceptible stages, without providing an actual set of such transformations. However, he concludes: "That one and the same ballad should be sung to two such different kinds of tunes--and, with rare exceptions, only these two--should certainly serve as a restraint upon the reckless positing of one-to-one correspondence between texts and tunes. Still, the question 'why these two and only these two?' cannot fail to pique our curiosity." Does not make any strong claims in the negative, i.e., the claim goes unmade that these two tunes have no such primary relationship with another song text.
At first skim, the rest of the paper seems a digression on the subject of ballad performance practice, as he observes it from working with the field recordings mentioned in the subtitle. There is enough melodic transcription and analysis to support his conclusion, but there are also pages and pages covering loudness, timbre, pitch-bending, prosody, tempo, vibrato. Although a digression, it is a valuable summary in its own right, and may represent an unconscious step in the direction of defining "conceptual approaches" (a la O. Wilson) to Anglo-American singing.
Seeger, Charles. 1977. Studies in Musicology, 1935-1975. vii, 357 pp. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
ethnomusicological theory/philosophy of music/cognition.
Seeger, Charles. 1977. "Introduction: Systematic (Synchronic) and Historical (Diachronic) Orientations in Musicology," in Studies in Musicology, 1935-1975, 1-15. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
"The aim... is to propose a theoretical basis for systematic musicology in terms of which improved relationships may be established (1) between musical and nonmusical or extramusical viewpoints, (2) between historical and systematic orientations, and (3) between scientific and critical methods" (5-6). Modestly claims that his effort is "valid for the Occidental art of music as of the mid-twentieth century alone" (6). Table on pp. 12-13 summarizes this three-dimensional matrix. Supports his aim by advancing three "propositions:" (a) the distinction between "a general, physical spacetime; a specialized, cultural, musical timespace" that is meant to illumine the difference between diachrony and synchrony in musicology (p. 6); (b) an elaboration of differences between general spacetime and musical timespace (p. 8); and (c) that music events occur [simultaneously] in general spacetime (as phenomena) and in musical timespace (as "normena") (p. 10), in which he adumbrates the musical/extramusical distinction. Views speech as a distorting lens through which to view music (7). Urges the reader to take care in relating music events to verbal reports of them: "it is only upon such a base that sound comparative studies of separate musics and music idioms can be made and, so, a world view of music envisaged" (15). Attempts to justify systematic musicology as a field of study in its own right (14).
Relates Guido Adler's historical/systematic division of musicology with Saussure's concepts of diachrony and synchrony in linguistics. "Musicology has a lot to learn from linguistics" (2), a sort of admission of disciplinary inferiority, but claims that linguists have not demonstrated an understanding of the relationship of diachrony and synchrony. Regarding synchronic "structures," he claims that "we could plot them upon a line representing the unfoldment of a diachronic process" (3). Diachrony supplies historical relationships among comparable structural characteristics of successive synchronic time slices. Synchronic study in turn gives impetus to diachrony by studying processes that suggest projection of time slices in the future. Musicologists who study contemporary music are necessarily in the future-prediction business, in his opinion.
His concept of "music timespace" represents an "intimate integration" of frequency, amplitude, and temporal density (6). Argues that a similar integration exists in "speech timespace" although it has been little studied [less true today]. Observes that existing studies have privileged space (pitch) and deemphasized time [also less true now]. A "music timespace" is a musical concept, a piece or passage of music that has an identity of its own as evidenced by the existence of multiple instances of it in the world, be they multiple manuscripts of the same composition or variant performances of a piece in oral tradition. Advances seven areas of difference between general spacetime and musical timespace: 1) occurrence: "general spacetime is... universal. Music timespace occurs within it" (8); 2) provenience (given/manmade); 3) identity (unique/multiplex); 4) continuity (uniform and endless/heterogeneous and finite); 5) control (outside of human control/totally within human control); 6) measurability (absolute/relative units of measurement); 7) variability (as far as I can tell, a restatement of absolute/relative). Very important: "a fixed system (general) and a variable system (music) [are] both reported in a second variable system (speech)" (9). Maintains that there are no one-to-one correspondences between these systems.
In order to describe how a music event can simultaneously exist in general spacetime and musical timespace, he invents the term "normenon" to stand for "the class of man-made product that serves primarily a function of communication" for which the phrase "work of art" is too clumsy (10). The invention is needed because such a class is not covered by Kant's terms "phenomena" (existing in general spacetime) and "noumena" (existing out of general spacetime). Note: this take on Kant may be different from Gardner's, in which phenomena are what is perceived and noumena are the unknowable, real-world objects that perception reports to us (1985:58). Normena have both phenomenological and noumenological aspects; he uses the examples of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason as a speech normenon (phenomena: printed page, sound of reading it; noumena: "the nonempirical concepts themselves and the ultimate structure of the work" (11)) and Bach's Art of Fugue as a music normenon (phenomena: printed page, sound of performance, aesthetic effect; noumena: musical identity as a concept along the lines outlined above). The normena/phenomena distinction then forms the foundation of his outline for the study of music in musical vs. extramusical terms.
Commentary: The suggestion that there are musical noumena belies the author's faith in the existence of "the music itself." His example of musical noumena (units of musical identity) defeats the distinction he was trying to make between noumena and normena, i.e., given vs. man-made. I think it is important not to lose this distinction, however, because it has ramifications for explaining cognitive processes: do the evolved mechanisms for differentiating sound sources in the environment work in the same fashion to help us tell one tune from another? Or do categorization of natural objects and categorization of artifacts arise from different cognitive faculties?
ethnomusicological theory/philosophy of music/cognition.
Seeger, Charles. 1977. "Music as Concept and as Percept," in Studies in Musicology, 1935-1975, 31-44. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Opening question: do "concept" and "percept" continue to carry the same meaning as he lays out in "Speech, Music, and Speech About Music?".
ethnomusicological theory/philosophy of music/cognition.
Seeger, Charles. 1977. "Speech, Music, and Speech About Music," in Studies in Musicology, 1935-1975, 16-30. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Approaches epistemological problems surrounding speech and music as a language puzzle [influenced by later Wittgenstein?], seeking to examine assumptions underlying talk about music and to arrive at "criteria for judgment in the formation of a comprehensive theory in whose terms orderly discussion of the case may be conducted" (16). Distinguishes three "speech modes." The affective mode is end-motivated in nature; it is the medium for "the great religious and mystical writings" and deals in values arising both from "inner, biological experience (the appetite to live and procreate); outer, sociocultural experience (accommodation with inner experience" (17). The reasoned mode is "origin-motivated, from cause to effect;" it is the medium for "the great sciences" whose goal is to explain clearly and precisely in words "reality in the physical universe," although the Heisenberg uncertainty principle places certain limits on it (17). The discoursive mode overlaps the other two modes; it is the mode of everyday discourse, of common sense and of the "uncommon sense" cultivated in the arts and humanities. In the discoursive mode, "there is no question of the effability or ineffability of reality. Reality is what the user is, thinks, feels, and does" (17). The affective mode deals with value, the reasoned mode with fact, and the discoursive mode mediates between the two in a way that encompasses the "musicological juncture," essentially a balancing act when speaking about music between terms of value and terms of fact. Diagram with a diamond inscribed within a square illustrates the orientation of the musicological juncture with respect to the three speech modes. Sets both speech and music within a more general framework of human communication, which he defines as "transmission of energy in a form" (19). Communication media encompass visual, auditory, and tactile (taste, smell, touch) perceptual channels. After Levi-Strauss, acknowledges that we communicate through "physical forms" that have been "cooked" and "gathered together in repertories by evolutionary-historical processes of sociocultural music-making" (20). Speculates idly about how much overlap their might be among visual, auditory, and tactile communication processes, but posits that whatever overlap there is "represents the primordial function of the brain, upon which the mystical conception of the human 'mind' has ultimately been erected" (21). Identifies nine "systems of communication" of which music, speech, and song comprise the auditory; graphic and plastic arts and the more prosaic "artifacture" the visual; and dance, "corporeality (combat and procreation...); cybernetics (where one person directs, with much talking and little movement, the activity of many persons, with much movement and little talking..." (21-22). Offers eighteen "principles or criteria for judgment in this linguocentric predicament that every musicologists operates in" (23). These amount to a rambling set of assumptions, amplifications, reiterations,and just plain fretting over the scheme of speech modes and systems of communication that he has laid out. The assumptions that he lays bare include: capacity to communicate is biologically given (23); capacity for categorization is given both biologically (tactility, vision, and audition) and culturally (the nine systems of comm.) (23); direct, asymbolic communication involves parallel processes in producer and consumer while indirect, symbolic (i.e., semiotic) communication "tends to cast whatever it deals with into similitudes of speech to an extent difficult to estimate and to compensate for" (24); the "potentialities" of all nine systems of communication are equal (24); dichotomies are to be understood as limits of ranges, i.e., endpoints of continua (25); it is possible to communicate critical value judgments in speech but not through music itself, therefore music is amoral (26). Under amplifications, I would put: discussion of the langage/langue/parole distinctions in French (universal phenomenon of language/particular spoken subsystem/performance by individual speaker) and introduction of comparable[?] terms for music: "concept" ("universal cultural system of predominantly asymbolic auditory communication"); "percept" ("the particular sung and played subsystem that is one of the many musics of man"; and "the singing and playing of a music by individual musicians" (25); the assumptions of value when speaking in the reasoned mode, of fact when speaking in the affective mode, and how the discoursive mode reconciles these two (26); the "concept" of a musical work as a "particular," in this case a member of a repertory class, vs. the "percept" of a the same work as a "singularity," that is as an identifiably unique member of its class. With this last point, the terminology confuses his underlying point that the reasoned mode of speech is in the business of generalization up the taxonomic hierarchy (concept/particularity) while the affective mode deals in differentiation down the hierarchy (percept/singularity) to individual pieces, performances, and "the percept of the ultimate experience (reality) of the valual universe" (26). From this distinction of fact vs. value orientation, he concludes that particularities are what we use in speech to express outsider views of music, while we use singularities to express insider views.
Commentary: Is Seeger's obsession with speech about music due to his belief that it comprises all that is knowable about music? Or does he acknowledge the presence of ineffable knowledge (cf. "the highest value, reality" on p. 17) and simply seek to sharpen the tools of the musicological trade? I think the latter--if we're going to talk about music, let's be as clear as we can of the advantages and limitations of doing so.
The characterization of the discoursive mode is weaker than of the other two--do not humanities scholars, with their "uncommon sense," struggle with the ineffability of reality? It seems like what he could be talking about is the sort of un-self-conscious mode that Kirshenblatt-Gimblett names "tradition" as opposed to "heritage."
Insight: historical musicologists are pretty close to the "value" end of the musicological juncture, ethnomusicologists are closer to the middle but not much, whereas music cognition researchers are close to the "reason" end. But does this really work? What of the "positivist" bent in musicology? Where do music theorists fit in? All of these different types of scholars are after "facts" of some sort or other, but their "values" dictate what sort of facts count in creating their explanations.
The basic point that different systems of communication each require their own representations in the receiver, independent of speech (my reading of "the communicatory act as an act of model making"), is one we can use, although his assumption that acts by the producer (e.g., movements) engender similar "acts" in the receiver is up for grabs.
Seeger offers an important reminder by pointing out that the discoursive mode can challenge the reasoned mode of speech by questioning the value of the facts under discussion (26).
His employment of the terms "concept" and "percept" is extremely confusing and convoluted and has very little to do with how psychologists use them. His alignment of a concept/percept opposition with those of fact/value and outsider/insider is even more problematic. Do not outsiders bring their own values to bear in viewing others' musics? Do not insiders also deal with "facts"? What do his distinctions serve to clarify?
Refers to the lower and higher levels of the discoursive mode without explaining lower and higher with respect to what (29).
Essentially considers "the finding of scales, chords, children's songs and such in the harmonic series" as "imaginative excursions into the cosmos" in the affective mode, and as antithetical to the reasoned mode. How would Gerhard Kubik respond?
Observation: Seeger's mention of the speech "homologs, analogs, and heterologs characteristic of the compositional process of music" seems to have informed Feld's writing style over the years, e.g. his article on iconicity.
ethnomusicological theory/philosophy of music/cognition.
Shapiro, Anne Dhu. 1975. The Tune-Family Concept in British-American Folk-Song Scholarship. [dissertation]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Stockmann, Doris. 1991. "Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Musical Communication Structures," in Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, editors Bruno Nettl, and Philip V. Bohlman, 318-341. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Explores the contributions that various non-musical fields have made toward understanding musical communication. The time span covered is roughly 1925-1975. Names mentioned include Alan Merriam, Charles Seeger, Eero Tarasti, Heinrich Besseler, and many others. Stockman discusses the (sub)disciplines of general communication theory, information theory, cybernetics (defined as "the theory of systems"), semiotics, structural linguistics, and also philosophy and aesthetics.
ethnomusicological theory/psychology of music/ethnomusicology/cognition.
Stone, Ruth M. 1982. Let the Inside Be Sweet: The Interpretation of Music Events Among the Kpelle of Liberia. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Stone, Ruth. 1985. "In Search of Time in African Music." Music Theory Spectrum 7:139-148.
Stone, Ruth. 1986. "Commentary: The Value of Local Ideas in Understanding West African Rhythm." Ethnomusicology 30/1:54-57.
Temperley, David. i.p. "Meter and Grouping in African Music: A View from Music Theory." Ethnomusicology
In this paper, the author makes a case for commonality between the African and European music traditions, insofar as each music begets the perception of a fixed pattern of stationary time intervals ("beats") that is called meter in the European tradition. Evidence for this claim is drawn by comparison of transcriptions from Ethnomusicology and Lerdahl & Jackendoff's (1984) generative theory of tonal music (or GTTM). In each case, researchers have attempted to elucidate the underlying structure of music. In Ethnomusicology, this is accomplished by constructing transcriptions for music from an aural tradition. Here, mere transcription involves an interpretation of the composer's structural intent (composer in this case entailing the performer). Music theory, on the other hand, focuses on scored music, wherein some degree of structure is manifested. Such researchers therefore tend to construct more abstract representations from this score. Interestingly, Temperley suggestes that GTTM may be applicable to perceived rhythmic structure in African music, as the transcriptions of Ethnographers (most prominently, those of Jones) position bar lines as would be predicted by GTTM.
This paper, like all, has some drawbacks. First, from the number of footnotes provided by the author when he makes the initial case that Ethnomusicologists share "almost unanimous agreement" (p. 7) that African music is metrical, an outsider to African music scholarship like myself wonders how unanimous this agreement is. I would have appreciated some index of agreement here (e.g. how many papers on African drumming refer to something like meter). A problem deeper than this paper has to do with the perceptual validity of meter, i.e. whether listeners actually apply a stable "beat grid" when they listen to music. The author does note this (p. 30) and should not be blamed as a music theorist for failing to incorporate perceptual data. Still, it seems to me that in this case especially these data are cruicial. From Ethnomusicology, we know mostly that certain researchers saw fit to incorporate bar lines into their transcriptions. This does not assure us, however, that these bar lines do not stem from exposure to European scores. Indeed, to some degree bar lines may serve simply to help group the score visually. Moreover, such evidence does not indicate how the typical African hears rhythms. Some perceptual evidence may be drawn from the regular clapping responses to music, although these do not coincide exclusively with meter beginnings.
In conclusion, this paper makes some interesting strides towards connecting European and African musics via the language of music theory. Still, my own bias is that the definitive evidence must come from empirical studies of perception.
Peter Q. Pfordresher.
Tolbert, Elizabeth. 1990. "Women Cry With Words: Symbolization of Affect in the Karelian Lament." Yearbook for Traditional Music 22:80-105.
Presents linguistic, musical, and semiotic analysis of monophonic songs collected in 1984-85 from women refugees who had learned them in rural, pre-World War II eastern Finland. Undertook to learn to sing laments from her informants. Finds tendency towad semantic obscurity in linguistic forms and in musical setting as a form of "ritual protection." Stresses importance of the "icons of crying," which in turn depend on micro-variations in rhythm and pitch, icons necessary "so that a trance-like state will result and the lamenter will be able to safely escort the soul to the next world" (97). Compares with laments from other cultures.
Contextualizes Karelian lament (itkuvirsi), its role and function as it is expressed in eastern Finland and Soviet Karelia in the ritualized settings of weddings and funerals as well as non-ritual settings where the occasion demands lament. Discusses the concept of Tunonela ("land of the dead"and "mirror of this world"), to which the lamenter is a guide in he funeral ceremony. Admits that while the recordings of herfieldwork are surpassed by other work of the last century, her data "represent essential linguistic and poetic features of the lament" upon which she focuses. Examines the relationship between the music and text and exemplifies their individual importance. Draws upon Urbans (1988) "four icons of crying," compares the Karelian lamenters to the ritual wailing of the Amerindian Brazilians, and agrees with the universals associated with such icons as stated by Rosenblatt, Walsh, and Jackson (1976). Focuses on the nature of the text, its improvisatory features, embellishment, and stress variance during lament. Measures and examines musical icons as they relate to the efficacy of the lament. Does not directly address any cognitive elements directly.
Tolbert, Elizabeth. 1992. "Theories of Meaning and Music Cognition: An Ethnomusicological Approach." World of Music 34/3:7-21.
Seeks to answer the question, "How is meaning in music created?" by means of "a theory of meaning formation that seeks to connect lower level and higher level cognitive processes, both from top-down and bottom-up approaches, and at an appropriate level of commensurability and sensitivity to context" (8,11). The "bottom-up" approach is borrowed from Churchland's Neurophilosophy, which uses the idea of the coordination of "phase spaces" in sensory-motor control as a paradigm for the embodied nature of all thought. This is combined with G. Lakoff's high-level approach to "basic-level categories" (from Rosch) and "kinesthetic image schemas" (the experience of the body in space). She then connects these theories of embodied thought with Bradd Shore's ideas of levels of psychological and cultural meaning. Having thus connect the "bottom-up" with the "top-down" (cf. Narmour), she reviews briefly ethnomusicological work on "iconicity of structure and experience in music", and relates it to the pair of articles by herself and Vaughn on Karelian lament (1990).
Um, Hae-Kyung. 1992. "Changing Views on the Aesthetics of p'ansori with Special Reference to "Ch'unhyang-ga" ("The Song of Ch'unhyang")," in European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Developments and Recent Trends, editors Max Peter Baumann, Artur Simon, and Ulrich Wegner, 189-198. Intercultural Music Studies, series editor. Max Peter Baumann, 4. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag.
ML3797.7.E876 1990 MUSI.
Vaughn, Kathryn. 1990. "Exploring Emotion in Sub-structural Aspects of Karelian Lament: Application of Time Series Analysis to Digitized Melody." Yearbook for Traditional Music 22:106-122.
Applies statistical analysis to music collected by Tolbert (1990) in an attempt to explain the role of the music in the trance behavior described by Tolbert. Sampled analog signal with MacRecorder and analyzed wave form with Signalyzer. Converted the monophonic song performances to MIDI using the [Australian] Fairlight Voice Tracker, and graphed the data using her own program, "MusicMapper". Analyzed the resulting melodic contour itself as a waveform and finds the "shaking frequency" and tendencies toward self-similarity in contour, which she then relates to existing physiological research on entrainment of periodic body processes during trance states.
States the importance of utilizing computers and the transference of archived material to a digitized format so that more scientific study can be performed beyond Tolbert's "humanistic analysis and interpretation." Praises Tolbert's work on Karelian lament as "ideal for the investigation of...pattern generation" with such techniques. While recognizing the resource of information found in the sound itself, dismisses the "claim once made by music psychologists that all music can be found in the sound wave." With this in mind, examines the "microstructure of lament" by focusing on the vocal shakes and vibrato found in one lamenter's performance. Illustrates time series analysis and explains the system used for analysis, including the Fairlight Voice Tracker, MusicMapper (Macintosh software). Considers entrainment as a primary element "associated with cognitive processes in memory...and hemispheric brain co-ordination." Encourages ethnomusicologists to explore "extreme musical behavior" as a "complex dynamical system" to contribute to the understanding of "change of state phenomena."
Vaughn, Kathryn. 1992. "Experimental Ethnomusicology: A Perceptual Basis for Jairazbhoy's Circle of that." World of Music 34/3:99-119.
Clarifies terms "perception" and "cognition" but leaves "culture" untouched. Discusses problems of interpreting human behavior by verbal reports alone, and of the lack of verisimilitude in the stimuli used in previous music cognition experiments (e.g. Castellano, Bharucha, and Krumhansl 1984). Describes experiment of similarity judgments using Western and Indian musicians trained in the North Indian classical tradition (10 or more years), and stimuli played by Ustad Imrat Khan, the ten that scales (presumably on sitar) and three different drone patterns (Pa-Sa, Ma-Sa, Ni-Sa) played on tambura with juari threads for the "buzz" effect. Scales were presented in pairs, with and without drones, and similarities were rated using a GUI slider object. Jairazbhoy's cyclical interpretation of the thats was borne out in the multi-dimensional scaling analysis. Distances between the scales were affected by the presence of the drone, which was contrary to the predictions of the Indian musicians, who claim to hear the drone even when it is not acoustically present. The Ni-Sa drone significantly hindered the Western musicians' abilities to make similarity judgments in portions of the "that circle.".
Vaughn, Kathryn, guest editor. 1994. "Special Section Introduction: Music, Cognition, and Culture." Leonardo Music Journal 4:39-40.
Vaughn, Kathryn and Edward Carterette. 1993. The Influence of Mode on Perceptual Relations Among Ten North Indian Rags. conference paper. June 16-19, 1993 Philadelphia, PA.
Voisin, Frédéric. 1994. "Musical Scales in Central Africa and Java: Modeling by Synthesis." Leonardo Music Journal 4:85-90.
Walker, Robert. 1990. Music Beliefs: Psychoacoustic, Mythical, and Educational Perspectives. 241 pp. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Wegner, Ulrich. 1990. Xylophonmusik aus Buganda (Ostafrika). Musikbogen: Wege zum Verständnis fremder Musikkulturen, 1. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel.
M1831.B84.W4 1990 MUSI.
Wegner, Ulrich. 1993. "Cognitive Aspects of amadinda Xylophone Music From Buganda: Inherent Patterns Reconsidered." Ethnomusicology 37/2:201-241.
Gerhard Kubik, in his work on Central and East African xylophone music, has identified contrasting psychological phenomena of "inherent patterns" and "nuclear theme" in some Central African xylophone music: the former represents an emergent melodic Gestalt from listening to two interlocking parts which do not differ noticeably in timbre, tempo, rhythm, or loudness; the latter is the vocal melody on which the xylophone composition is based. Psychology experiments, especially those of van Noorden (1976) and Bregman (1990), support the existence of inherent patterns as percepts. Work by Dowling (1973), which demonstrates how an incoherent sequence of tones can be heard as the interleaving of two well-known melodies once the melodies are named to the listener, supports the existence of the "nuclear theme" in the xylophone performance as heard by insiders, even though its component notes correspond neither to one player's part nor to the inherent patterns which are identified by Kubik. Inherent patterns are scarcely mentioned by the players themselves, but performance behavior suggests that they are heard. Perception experiments with Baganda musicians and dancers were conducted in their native language while they were on tour in the Netherlands. Stimuli were varied in controlled fashion using analysis-by-synthesis techniques, including parameters of tempo, timing, timbre, register, and spatial localization, of the interlocking parts of xylophone pieces from the known repertory. Subjects were asked to sing along with the recordings and to comment verbally on what they heard. The synthesized examples without gross alterations were judged to be valid musical performances by the subjects. Sung responses generally followed the nuclear theme, and neither these nor the verbal comments constituted any reference to Kubik's inherent patterns. Whether or not the subjects' hearing of the inherent patterns is obliterated by the schema of the nuclear theme, or if they are able to attend to them if they choose, is still an open question. Excerpts from verbal comments appear in an appendix. African/music/cognition/ethnomusicology.
Zbikowski, Lawrence. 1996. "Musical works and oral tradition: Transmission and identity reconsidered". Baltimore, MD: National Meeting of the American Musicological Society.
Zemp, Hugo. 1971. Musique Dan: La Musique dans la Pensée et la Vie Sociale d'une Société Africaine. 320 pp. Cahiers de l'Homme: Ethnologie-Géographie-Linguistique, Nouvelle Série XI. Paris: Mouton.
GN4.C25 v. 11 Anthro.
Zemp, Hugo. 1978. "'Are 'Are Classification of Musical Types and Instruments." Ethnomusicology 22:37-68.
Zemp, Hugo. 1979. "Aspects of 'Are'are Musical Theory." Ethnomusicology 23/1:5-48.
An early article among those that contain what Marshall (1982) calls the "discovery" of an indigenous philosophy of music.
Zemp, Hugo. 1995. Écoute le bambou qui pleure: Récits de quatre musiciens mélanésiens ('Aré'aré, Île Salomon). L'aube des peuples, France: Gallimard/nrf.
ML3770.C3 1995 (UCB Main).