Scarlet & Grey
Ohio State University
School of Music


Music 829B: Bibliography of Consonance and Dissonance



Aures, W. (1985). Der sensorische Wohlklang als Funktion psychoakustischer Empfindungsgrössen. Acustica, Vol. 58, pp. 282-290.

Aures, W. (1985). Ein Berechnungsverfahren der Rauhigkeit. Acustica, Vol. 58, pp. 268-281.

Aures, W. (1985). Berechnungsverfahren für den sensorischen Wohlklang beliebiger Schallsignale. Acustica, Vol. 59, pp. 130-141.

Ayres, T., Aeschbach, S., & Walker, E.L. (1980). Psychoacoustic and experiential determinants of tonal consonance. Journal of Auditory Research, Vol. 20, pp. 31-42.

Blood, A.J., Zatorre, R.J., Bermudez, P., & Evans, A.C. (1999) Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 2, pp. 382-387.

Boomsliter, P., & Creel, W. (1961). The long pattern hypothesis in harmony and hearing. Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 2-30.

Bregman, A.S. (1990). Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization of sound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Brues, A.M. (1927). The fusion of non-musical intervals. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 38, pp. 624-638.

Burns, E., & Ward, W.D. (1982). Intervals, scales and tuning. In D. Deutsch (ed.), The Psychology of Music. New York: Academic Press.

Butler, J.W., & Daston, P.G. (1968). Musical consonance as musical preference: a cross-cultural study. Journal of General Psychology, Vol. 79, pp. 129-142.

Buttram, J.B. (1969). Perception of musical intervals. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 28, pp. 391-394.


Cazden, N. (1945). Musical consonance and dissonance: A cultural criterion. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol.4, No. 1, pp. 3-11.

Cazden, N. (1960). Sensory theories of musical consonance. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 301-319.


Cazden, N. (1980). The definition of consonance and dissonance. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Vol. 2, pp. 123-168.

Cohen, D.E. (1993). Metaphysics, ideology, discipline: Consonance, dissonance, and the foundations of Western polyphony. Theoria, Vol. 7, pp. 1-85.

Cross, C. R. & Goodwin, H. M. (1893). Some considerations regarding Helmholtz's theory of consonance. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Series, Vol. 19, pp. 1-12.

Cumar, R., & Frusi, L. (1978). Prospettive sperimentali e metodi di ricerca per lo studio degli intervalli musicali. Pisa: Giardini.

Danner, G. (1985). The use of acoustic measures of dissonance to characterize pitch-class sets. Music Perception, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 103-122.


DeWitt, L.A. & Crowder, R.G. (1987). Tonal fusion of consonant musical intervals: The oomph in Stumpf. Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 73-84.

Edmonds, E.M., & Smith, M.E. (1923). The phenomenological description of musical intervals. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 34, pp. 287-291.

Egan, J.P. & Hake, H.W. (1950). On the masking pattern of a simple auditory stimulus. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 22, p. 662.

Fyk, J. (1982). Tolerance of intonation deviation in melodic intervals in listeners of different musical training. Archives of Acoustics, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 13-28.

Galileo Galilei (1638). Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche interno à due nuove scienze attenenti alla mecanica ed i movimenti locali. Leiden: Elsevier, 1638. Translated by H. Crew and A. de Salvio as Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc, 1963.

Geary, J.M. (1980). Consonance and dissonance of pairs of inharmonic sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol 67, No. 5, pp. 1785-1789.


Van de Geer, J.P., Levelt, W.J.M. & Plomp, R. (1962). The connotation of musical consonance. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 20, pp. 308-319.

Geringer, J.M., & Madsen, C.K. (1981). Verbal and operant discrimination -- preference for tone quality and intonation. Psychology of Music, Vol. 9, pp. 26-30.


Greenwood, D.D. (1961). Auditory masking and the critical band. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 33, pp. 484-501.

Greenwood, D. D. (1990). A cochlear frequency-position function for several species -- 29 years later. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 87, No. 6, pp. 2592-2605.

Greenwood, D. D. (1991). Critical bandwidth and consonance in relation to cochlear frequency-position coordinates. Hearing Research, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 164-208.

Guernsey, M. (1928). The role of consonance and dissonance in music. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40, pp. 173-204.

Hall, D.E., & Hess, J.T. (1984). Perception of musical interval tuning. Music Perception, Vol. 2, pp. 166-195.

Helmholtz, H. von. (1877). Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik. 1877, 6th ed., Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1913; trans. by A.J. Ellis as On the sensations of tone as a physiological basis for the theory of music" (1885). Reprinted New York: Dover, 1954.

Hesse, H.-P. (1982). The judgment of musical intervals. In M. Clynes (ed.), Music, Mind, and Brain: The Neuropsychology of Music. New York: Plenum.

Huron, D. (1990). Mary Louise Serafine: Music As Cognition: The Development of Thought in Sound [review of]. Psychology of Music, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp.99-103.


Huron, D. (1991a). Tonal consonance versus tonal fusion in polyphonic sonorities. Music Perception, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 135-154.

Huron, D. (1991b). Albert S. Bregman: Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound [review of]. Psychology of Music, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 77-82.

Huron, D. (1993). A derivation of the rules of voice-leading from perceptual principles. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol. 93, No. 4, p. S2362.


Huron, D. (1994). Interval-class content in equally-tempered pitch-class sets: Common scales exhibit optimum tonal consonance. Music Perception, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 289-305.

Huron, D. (1996). Stream segregation in polyphonic music: Asynchronous preparation of tonally fused intervals in J.S. Bach. MS.


Huron, D. & Sellmer, P. (1992). Critical bands and the spelling of vertical sonorities. Music Perception, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 129-149.

Husmann, H. (1953). Vom Wesen der Konsonanz. Heidelberg: Müller-Thiergarten Verlag.


Hutchinson, W. & Knopoff, L. (1978). The acoustic component of Western consonance. Interface, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1-29.

Hutchinson, W., & Knopoff, L. (1979). The acoustic measurement of consonance and dissonance for common practice triads. Journal of Musicological Research, Vol. 3, pp. 6.


Izumi, A. (2000). Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 108, No. 6, pp. 3073-3078.


Kaestner, G. (1909). Untersuchungen über den Gefühlseindruck unanalysierter Zweiklänge. Psychologische Studien, Vol. 4, pp. 473-504.


Kameoka, A. & Kuriyagawa, M. (1969a). Consonance theory, part I: Consonance of dyads. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 1451-1459.

Kameoka, A. & Kuriyagawa, M. (1969b). Consonance theory, part II: Consonance of complex tones and its computation method. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 1460-1469.


Keislar, D.F. (1991). Psychoacoustic factors in musical intonation: beats, interval tuning, and inharmonicity. PhD dissertation, Stanford University.

Levelt, W. & Plomp, R. (1966). Les dimension dans la perception des intervalles musicaux. Sciences de L'Art, Vol. 3, Numéro Spécial, pp. 172-182.

Levelt, W., Van de Geer, J., & Plomp, R. (1966). Triadic comparisons of musical intervals. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, Vol. 19, pp. 163-179.

Lipps, T. (1905). Psychologische Studien. Leipzig: Verlag der Dürr'Schen Buchhandlung. Translated by W.E. Thomson as Consonance and Dissonance in Music. San Marino, CA: Everett Books, 1995.

Lundin, R.W. (1947). Toward a cultural theory of consonance. Journal of Psychology, Vol. 23, pp. 45-49.

Lynch, M.P., Short, L.B. & Chua, R. (1995). Contributions of experience to the development of musical processing in infancy. Developmental Psychobiology, Vol. 28, No. 7, pp. 377-398.

Maher, T.F. (1980). A rigorous test of the proposition that musical intervals have different psychological effects. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 309-327.

Maher, T.F., & Berlyne, D.E. (1982). Verbal and exploratory responses to melodic musical intervals. Psychology of Music, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 11-27.

Makeig, S. (1979/1980). The affect of musical intervals. Interval," Vol. 2, No. 1 (1979/80) pp. 18-19, 24-26; Vol. 2, Nos. 2-3, pp. I12-I16; Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 11-13.

Makeig, S. (1982). Affective versus analytic perception of musical intervals. In M. Clynes (ed.), Music, Mind and Brain: the Neuropsychology of Music. New York: Plenum.


Malmberg, C.F. (1918). The perception of consonance and dissonance. Psychological Monographs, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 93-133.


Mashinter, K. (1995). Discrepancies in theories of sensory dissonance arising from the models of Kameoka & Kuriyagawa and Hutchinson & Knopoff. Bachelor of Applied Mathematics and Bachelor of Music joint thesis, University of Waterloo.

Mathews, M.V. & Pierce, J.R. (1980). Harmony and nonharnomic partials. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 68, pp. 1252-1257.

Mersenne, M. (1636/1637). Harmonie universelle. Paris.

Meyer, L.B. (1956). Emotion and meaning in music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Meyer, L.B. (1973). Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mayer, M. (1894). Researches in Acoustics. No. IX. Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 37, pp. 259-288.

Mayer, M. (1903). Experimental studies in the psychology of music. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 14, pp. 456-478.

Montani, A. (1947). Outline of a physiological theory of musical consonance. Riv. Musicale Ital., Vol. 49, pp. 168-176.

Moran, H., & Pratt, C.C. (1926). Variability of judgments of musical intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 9, pp. 492-500.

Nordmark, J., & Fahlén, L.E. (1988). Beat theories of musical consonance. Quarterly Progress and Status Report, Vol. 1, pp. 111-112. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology, Speech Transmission Laboratory.

Nesse, R.M. (1991). What good is feeling bad? The evolutionary benefits of psychic pain. The Sciences, Nov./Dec. 1991, pp. 30-37.

Ogden, R.M. (1909). A contribution to the theory of tonal consonance. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 6, pp. 297-303.

O'Keeffe, V. (1975). Psychophysical preference for harmonized musical passages in the just and equal tempered systems. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 40, pp. 192-194.

Ortmann, O. R. (1926). On the Melodic Relativity of Tones. Princeton: Psychological Review Company; (Vol. 35, No. 1 of Psychological Monographs.)

Peretz, I., Blood, A.J., Penhune, V. & Zatorre, R. (2001). Cortical deafness to dissonance. Brain, Vol. 124, No. 5, pp. 928-940.

Pierce, J. R. (1968). Attaining consonance in arbitrary scales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, p. 249.

Pikler, A.G. (1966). History of experiments on the musical interval sense. Journal of Music Theory,

Pikler, A.G., & Harris, J.D. (1961). Measurement of the musical interval sense. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 23, p. 862.

Plomp, R. (1967). Beats of mistuned consonances. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 42, pp. 462-474.

Plomp, R. (1976). Aspects of Tone Sensation: A Psychophysical Study. London: Academic Press.

Plomp, R. (1970). Old and new data on tone perception. Instituut Voor Zintuigfysiologie, RVO-TNO, Report No. IZF1970-14, 57p.

Plomp, R. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1962). Musical consonance and critical bandwidth. Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Acoustics, Copenhagen.


Plomp, R. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1965). Tonal consonance and critical bandwidth. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 38, pp. 548-560.

Plomp, R., & Mimpen, A.M. (1968). The ear as a frequency analyzer. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 36, pp. 1628-1636.


Plomp, R., & Steeneken, H.J.M. (1968). Interference between two simple tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 43, pp. 883-884.

Pressnitzer, D., & McAdams, S. (1998). Phase effects in roughness perception. In: A.R. Palmer, A. Rees, A.Q. Summerfield, & R. Meddis (eds.), Psychophysical and Physiological Advances in Hearing. London: Whurr Publishers, pp. 286-292.

Pressnitzer, D., & McAdams, S. (1999). An effect of the coherence between envelopes across frequency regions on the perception of roughness. In: T. Dau, V. Hohmann, & B. Killmeier (eds.), Psychophysics, Physiology and Models of Hearing. London: World Scientific, pp. 105-108.

Rakowski, A. (1982). Psychoacoustic dissonance in pure-tone intervals: Disparities and common findings. In: Dahlhaus, & Krause (Eds.), Tiefenstruktur der Musik, Berlin: Technische Universität, pp.51-67.

Rakowski, A. (1985). The perception of musical intervals by music students. Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin, Vol. 85, pp. 175-186.

Rakowski, A., & Miskiewicz, A. (1985). Deviations from equal temperament in tuning isolated musical intervals. Archives of Acoustics, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 95-104.

Rameau, J.-P. (1722/1971). Traité de l'harmonie. Paris: Ballard, 1722; trans. by P. Gossett as Treatise on Harmony. New York: Dover, 1971.

Rasch, R. (1984). Theory of Helmholtz-beat frequencies. Music Perception, Vol. 1, pp. 308-322.

Rasch, R., & Plomp, R. (1982). The perception of musical tones. In D. Deutsch (ed.), The Psychology of Music. New York: Academic Press.

Resnick, L. (1981). Psychophysical basis for consonant musical intervals. American Journal of Physics, Vol. 49, pp. 579-580.

Roberts, L. (1983). Consonance and dissonance: a review of the literature. Unpublished MS.

Roberts, L. (1986). Consonance judgments of musical chords by musicians and untrained listeners. Acustica, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 163-171.

Roberts, L., & Mathews, M. (1984). Intonation sensitivity for traditional and nontraditional chords. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 75, pp. 952-959.

Sandig, H. (1939). Beobachtungen an Zweiklängen in getrenntohriger und beidohriger Darbietung. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie de Konsonanz. Neue Psychologische Studien, Vol. 14, pp. 25-131.

Schügerl, K. (1970). On the perception of concords. In R. Plomp and G. Smoorenburg (eds.), Frequency analysis and periodicity detection in hearing. Leiden: Sijthoff.

Schellenberg, E.G. & Trainor, L.J. (1996). Sensory consonance and the perceptual similarity of complex-tone harmonic intervals: Tests of adult and infant listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 100, No. 5, pp. 3321-3328.

Schellenberg, E.G. & Trehub, S.E. (1994). Frequency ratios and the perception of tone patterns. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 191-201.

Schellenberg, E.G. & Trehub, S.E. (1994). Frequency ratios and the discrimination of pure-tone sequences Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 472-478.

Schellenberg, E.G. & Trehub, S.E. (1996). Natural musical intervals: Evidence from infant listeners. Psychological Science, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 272-277.

Schellenberg, E.G. & Trehub, S.E. (1999). Culture-general and culture-specific factors in the discrimination of melodies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 107-127.

Seashore, C. E. (1938). The Psychology of Music. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sethares, W. A. (1993). Local consonance and the relationship between timbre and scale. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 94, Pt. 1, p. 1218.


Simpson, J. (1994). Cochlear modeling of sensory dissonance and chord roots. Master of Applied Science thesis, University of Waterloo.

Slaymaker, F. H. (1968). Chords from tones having stretched partials. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 47, pp. 1469-1571.


Smith, A. B. (1997). A "cumulative" method of quantifying tonal consonance in musical key contexts Music Perception, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 175-188.


Stumpf, C. (1898). Konsonanz und Dissonanz. Beitr. Akust. Musikwiss. Vol. 1, pp. 1-108.


Stumpf, C. (1883-1890). Tonpsychologie.

Tenney, J. (1988). A History of "Consonance" and "Dissonance." White Plains, NY: Excelsior, 1988; New York: Gordon and Breach, 1988.


Terhardt, E. (1974a). Pitch, consonance, and harmony. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 55, pp. 1061-1069.

Terhardt, E. (1974b). On the perception of period sound fluctuations (roughness). Acustica, Vol. 20, pp. 215-224.

Terhardt, E. (1976). Ein psychoakustisch begründetes Konzept der musikalischen Konsonanz. Acustica, Vol. 36, pp. 121-137.

Terhardt, E. (1977). The two-component theory of musical consonance. In E.F. Evans and E.P. Wilson (eds.), Psychophysics and Physiology of Hearing. London: Academic Press.

Terhardt, E. (1984). The concept of musical consonance: a link between music and psychoacoustics. Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 276-295.


Trainor, L.J. (1997). Effect of frequency ratio on infants' and adults' discrimination of simultaneous intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 1427-1438.



Trainor, L.J. & Heinmiller B.M. (1998). The development of evaluative responses to music: Infants prefer to listen to consonance over dissonance. Infant Behavior & Development, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 77-88 1998

Viemeister, N., & Fantini, D. (1987). Discrimination of frequency ratios. In W. Yost and C. Watson (eds.), Auditory Processing of Complex Sounds. Hillsdale, N.Y.: Erlbaum.

Voigt, W. (1985). Dissonanz und Klangfarbe: Instrumentationsgeschichtliche und experimentelle Untersuchungen. Bonn: Verlag für systematische Musikwissenschaft; [Orpheus, Vol. 41].


Vos, J. (1986). Purity ratings of tempered fifths and major thirds. Music Perception, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 221-258.

Vos, J. (1987). The perception of pure and tempered musical intervals. Doctoral dissertation, University of Leiden.

Vos, J., & van Vianen, B.G. (1985). Thresholds for discrimination between pure and tempered intervals: The relevance of nearly coinciding harmonics. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 176-187.

Wapnick, J., Bourassa, G., & Sampson, J. (1982). The perception of tonal intervals in isolation and in musical context. Psychomusicology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 21-37.


Wright, J. K. & Bregman, A. S. (1987). Auditory stream segregation and the control of dissonance in polyphonic music. Contemporary Music Review, Vol. 2, pp. 63-93.


Zentner, M.R. & Kagan, J. (1998). Infants' perception of consonance and dissonance in music. Infant Behavior & Development, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 483-492.


Zwicker & Fastl (1990). Psychoacoustics. Springer-Verlag.

Auxilliary Materials

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Orlebeke, J.F., & Feij, J.A. (1979). The orienting reflex as a personality correlate. In H.D. Kimmel, E.H. van Olst, & J.F. Orlebeke (eds.), The orienting reflex in humans. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 567-585.

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