pattern [-ciy] -f templatefile [-s regexp] [inputfile ...]
The pattern sought must be defined as a separate "template" file. The template file is identified using the -f command option.
Pattern templates consist of one or more records. Each record specifies a standard UNIX regular expression -- followed by an optional "record-count metacharacter." The input is scanned from beginning to end, in order to find passages that match the defined template. In the simplest case, a match is deemed to take place when successive records in the input stream match the regular expressions given in each of the corresponding records of the template. However, the number of records in the matching input need not be the same as the number of records in the template.
Consider, first, a simple example where the template consists of the numbers 1, 2, 3 -- each on a separate line:
1 2 3
This template will match inputs such as the following:
1 112 43.9
A more circumspect regular expression template might look like this:
0x.=%&1* Figure 32 abc(...32...)
^1$ ^2$ ^3$
(The caret (^) and dollar sign ($) are regular expression anchors that indicate the beginning of the record and end of the record respectively.)
Standard regular expression syntax provides three "counting" metacharacters that can be used to specify the number of occurrences of a given pattern on a single line. The counting metacharacters are + * and ?. If p is a regular expression pattern, then (p)+ will match one or more consecutive instances of p. Similarly, (p)* will match zero or more consecutive instances of p, whereas (p)? will match zero or one instance of p. The use of these metacharacters is illustrated below:
X+ matches X, XX, XXX, etc. X* matches X, XX, XXX, etc. as well as the null string X? matches X or the null string XX matches XX (XX)+ matches XX, XXXX, XXXXXX, etc.
These metacharacters can be used in conjunction with other regular expression operators and anchors to specify complex patterns. See regexp (6) for further details.
command, the regular expression counting metacharacters may
be used to specify the
number of successive records
that match the regular expression.
We refer to this use as "record-count metacharacters."
Record-count metacharacters are specified by following the regular expression
with a tab -- followed by either +, *, or ?.
For example, consider the following
X + Y * Z ?
Note that the strings
command will identify
possible matching patterns beginning at each point in the input.
Consider, by way of example, the following template file
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 +
**num **num 1 1 2 2 3 2 4 3 5 4 5 5 6 6 *- *-
pattern -f template example1
the pattern command will produce the following output:
4 patterns found from line 2 to line 7 of file example1
1 pattern found from line 2 to line 6 of file example1
The patterns are: 1-2-3-4-5, 1-2-2-3-4-5, 1-2-3-3-4-5, 1-2-3-4-4-5 and 1-2-3-4-5-5. Note that the entire input line is used for matching purposes. It doesn't matter, for example, whether the number "2" is matched in the left spine or the right spine -- only that the number "2" is present on a given line. This feature is useful for identifying Klangfarbenmelodie and other "threaded" or "diagonal" patterns that can be traced between spines. If the user wishes to avoid such diagonal patterns, individual spines should be extracted separately before invoking the pattern command.
Options are specified in the command line.
-c makes pattern-matching sensitive to comments -h displays a help screen summarizing the command syntax -i makes pattern-matching sensitive to interpretations -s regexp skip (ignore) data records containing the defined regular expression -y outputs appropriate `yank' commands in place of regular output
By default, the pattern command is insensitive to the presence or absence of Humdrum comments and interpretations. Pattern searches may be made sensitive to occurrences of comments (defined in the template) by specifying the -c option. Similarly, pattern searches may be made sensitive to occurrences of interpretations by specifying the -i option.
Certain types of data records may be ignored in the pattern-search by invoking the -s (skip) option. This option must be accompanied by a user-define regular expression. All input data records matching the regular expression are ignored. This option is useful, for example, in skipping null data tokens, barlines, marked embellishment tones, or other types of data.
The pattern command does not directly implement an "echo" option -- such as provided by the related patt command. With the -y option, however, pattern will produce an output suitable for use with the Humdrum yank command. This permits the user to extract the appropriate matching passages from the input.
Note that in the above example, the extensive capabilities for defining complex regular expressions have not been used. Refer to regexp (6) for further pertinent information.